Free Cover StoriesJune 2016
Benchtop NMR spectroscopy for meat authentication
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-known technique used in laboratories worldwide. They are expensive to buy and maintain, occupy a large amount of space, and require highly trained personnel to run them.
Coconut oil boom
Coconut oil, once reviled for its high saturated fat content, is now getting credit for all kinds of health benefits. Inform reviews the scientific evidence.
Sink or swim: fish oil supplements and human health
Research on the health effects omega-3 fatty acid supplements is reviewed.
Pulsed electric field: groundbreaking technology for improving olive oil extraction
Mechanical extraction recovers only 80% of the oil from olives. A new physical pretreatment increases yields and healthful bioactive compounds.
Prescribing dietary fat: therapeutic uses of ketogenic diets
Why fat may be the best prescription for some diseases and disorders.
Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax
Organogels prepared from small amounts of sunflower wax in vegetable oil produce relatively firm margarines.
The power of peptides
Peptides have emerged as increasingly important biological entities.
Separation anxiety: membrane cleaning in the 21st century
Customized industrial membrane cleaners could see growth in the years ahead.
Using direct solid phase extraction to analyze persistent organic pollutants in oily food samples
Quick and easy extraction method for dioxins, PCBs, etc., in oily foods.
A longer shelf life, naturally?
New strategies prevent lipid oxidation and extend the shelf life of foods.
Big fat controversy: changing opinions about saturated fats
Read how opinions on dietary saturated fat are changing and why.
Use of spent bleaching earth for economic and environmental benefit
Learn how spent bleaching earth can become a value-added product.
An introduction to cosmetic technology
A review article on the basic technologies and ingredients used by cosmetic chemists.
Food texture and nutrition: the changing roles of hydrocolloids and food fibers
Clean label concerns are changing how hydrocolloids and food fibers are used in processed foods.
Scientists rank thousands of substances according to potential exposure level
EPA researchers develop a model to predict which chemicals have the highest exposure levels.
Biotechnology: Using living systems to solve problems
Read how agricultural biotechnology relates to the fats and oils industries.
Clean smell does not always equal clean air
HOME & PERSONAL CARE Does a clean smell at home equate to clean air?
Flush to fuel
Will coupling algae growth with wastewater treatment make algal biofuels viable?
1970s fish oil study criticized
Critics of 1970s omega-3 studies twisted facts to get attention, says author of oft-cited research.
Detection, monitoring, and deleterious health effects of lipid oxidation
Are aldehydic lipid oxidation products in thermally stressed PUFA-rich cooking oils dangerous?
Developing a high-performance, low-streak degreaser
Find out how Akzo Nobel developed a high-performance, surfactant-based, low-streak degreaser
Modified protein mimics taste and texture of fat
Modified proteins that mimic the taste and texture of fat.
Development of the first efficient membrane separations of cis fatty acids
A new membrane separation technology can rapidly separate and purify cis fatty acids and esters.
How enzymes are transforming manufacturing
Enzymes are reshaping products and manufacturing even as they are being reengineered through genetic modification.
Regulatory updates on FSMA and combustible dust
FSMA and combustible dust regulations are topics of continuing importance to oilseed processors.
2014 AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo
Did you miss the 2014 AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo in San Antonio (May 4–7)? Read a summary of the highlights and peruse our photo album.
Two advances in biodiesel technology
This issue of Inform features two advances in biodiesel technology—one based on a liquid lipase and the other on solid catalysts.
A customized approach to frying oil
Which do you think would exhibit a better oxidative stability index after 80 hours of frying: high-oleic canola oil or customized high-stability algal oil? Find the answer in this article from ADM and Solazyme.
Peanut genome sequenced
A multinational group of crop geneticists have sequenced the peanut (groundnut) genome. This resource should expedite the development of enhanced peanut cultivars in a number of countries, explains Marguerite S. Torrey.
Cannabis testing: a review of the current landscape
The legalization of cannabis for medical use has created a need for accurate and reliable testing.
Omics reveals subtle changes in carbon flux that lead to increased oil biosynthesis in oil palm
Detailed biochemical analysis during oil palm development bridges the gaps between biological understanding, genetic markers, and phenotypes.
Emulsions: making oil and water mix
A wide range of products, including foods, nutraceuticals, personal and home care products, industrial lubricants, oilfield chemicals, and biofuels involve stable mixtures of liquids that ordinarily do not mix together. This first free article from the April issue of Inform explains the basic science of emulsions and how they are used in a variety of applications.
Industrial hemp gaining traction
An amendment in the final US farm bill relaxed the longstanding restriction on the farming of industrial hemp for research purposes. This second free article from the April issue of Inform considers the implications.
FSMA marches on
The US Food and Drug Administration only recently completed its release of the various proposed rules mandated by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) of 2010.
Lipid co-oxidation of proteins: One size does not fit all
Recent studies show that protein degradation can result in gross underestimation of lipid oxidation in complex food systems such as peanut butter and tortilla chips.
Pathways to novel chemicals
Alternative pathways are yielding biobased chemicals that can do things petroleum can’t.
Disruptive technology? Walmart’s “green” product line may signal a big change
Newcomer Agaia International Inc.’s Evolve® technology—a liquid composition containing alkyl polyglycoside surfactants and no petrochemicals—is already a hit in industrial and institutional cleaning because of its performance and low price. Now Walmart has introduced a suite of four green cleaners manufactured by Agaia. Their low price point may signal a big change within the green home care arena.
Specialty lipids in pet nutrition
Conjugated linoleic acids, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and medium-chain triglycerides provide some of the same health benefits to pets as to humans. Read a review of the latest research in one part of a three-article special report on lipids in pet food.
EFSA releases preliminary report on occurrence of 3-MCPD in food
A preliminary report released in September 2013 by the European Food Safety Authority suggested that some European populations were at risk of overexposure to 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-esters in foods. Several organizations, including AOCS, responded to the report.
Seven new biobased surfactant technologies
New technologies are making it easier than ever to make surfactants from biobased feedstocks. Inform provides an in-depth look at seven of them.
Do oil color scales make you see red . . . or yellow?
Color is a critical measurement used to monitor oils at each stage of the refining process. Learn how selecting and communicating the correct color scale can eliminate confusion and costly misunderstandings.
Shortage leads to green route to olefins
A new study examines a green route to glycerol via ultraviolet irradiation of fats and vegetable oils that may lead to a biobased source of acrylic acid and long-chain olefins.
Silent partners: implications of the human microbiome
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses contribute to human physiology, but scientists are only beginning to
Sesamol: a natural antioxidant for frying oil
Learn what factors limit sesamol’s effectiveness during frying and how researchers are using multiple technologies to address those factors.
The US Department of Agriculture released two new rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act: the Foreign Supplier Verification Program and the Accreditation of Third-Party Auditors.
The other vitamin E
Learn how researchers are trying to increase the bioavailability of tocotrienols, powerful antioxidants in the vitamin E family, by modifying their structure and/or formation.
Patent rights and biotech seeds
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) have been receiving extensive media coverage recently in the United States.
TSCA and the regulation of renewable chemicals
Biobased chemicals represent a multi-billion pound chemical business, and their share of the global chemical industry is expected to grow from 2% to 22% by 2025
Frac fever heats up
Hydraulic fracturing, or “fraccing,” is a source of great opportunity for surfactant researchers and manufacturers.
FDA asks for fees from industry to fund FSMA
This story discusses the US Food and Drug Administration’s recent request for additional “user fees.”
Making sense of e-sensing
Find out about the advantages and limitations of traditional sensory panels made up of trained food testers as well as how industry currently is using artificial noses, tongues, and eyes.
This in-depth news story discusses the patent infringement case that pitted a US farmer against Monsanto and was heard in February 2013 by the US Supreme Court. The decision—expected in June—could have ramifications well beyond seed production.
What does it take to start a biodiesel industry?
Learn how Jatropha is being used to make biodiesel in Haiti, and how this effort is helping people in that country build an economy literally from the ground up.
Health and Nutrition News
US National Institutes of Health (NIH)used modern statistics to review data that were not included in the original 1978 publication of results from the Sydney Diet Heart Study (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 109:317–330).
What’s in a Claim? Would a Food Not Labeled “Natural” Taste as Sweet?
Consumers purchase foods labeled as “natural” for a variety of reasons, assuming, for example, that these foods are less processed, have improved health benefits, or have less impact on the environment. But does a “natural” product provide all of those benefits, and what do manufacturers who use that label intend to communicate?
The end of 2012 and beginning of 2013 was a busy time for US regulators and standard-setters as two regulations and one consensus standard made the news. All have implications for oilseed processing and edible oil refining.
The preservative wars
Concerns about traditional preservatives have created a substantial market for “natural” preservatives derived from plant sources, but there are many definitions of “natural.” Whether natural preservatives are safer than their traditional counterparts is still under debate.
Plants producing DHA
CSIRO researchers published results in November 2012 showing that the long-chain n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be produced in land plants in commercially valuable quantities.
trans Fatty acid content of foods in China
Growing evidence that dietary consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has made TFA a hot topic among people, food industries, and government officials in China.
Swift response to paper on feeding GMO corn, glyphosate
On September 19, 2012, the Elsevier journal Food and Chemical Toxicology released online a paper entitled “Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize” by Gilles-Eric Séralini and co-workers.
AOCS: supporting international standards
Trade standards improve efficiency of production and ease international commerce. They can also affect profitability.
The America Invents Act: Groundbreaking US patent law changes are here
The recent enactment of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) has set the stage for what are probably the most sweeping patent law reforms in the past 40 years.
“Super Phos” esters: the key to higher-performance products
Robert L. Reierson, winner of the 2012 Samuel Rosen Memorial Award recognizing accomplishments in surfactant chemistry, describes how phosphation process control makes it possible to systematically design and adjust product compositions to deliver maximum performance, achieve competitive advantage, and even gain patent protection.
Advances in field-portable mass spectrometers for on-site analytics
Learn how the combination of ambient ionization with portable mass spectroscopy can speed chemical analysis by streamlining sample preparation and throughput requirements.
EFSA sets upper intake level for LC-PUFA
This article, from our Health & Nutrition News department, discusses EFSA’s establishment of an upper intake level for DHA and EPA and the agency’s work on health claims.
High-oleic canola oils and their food applications
High-oleic canola oils are among the major healthful oils replacing trans fat in food processing and foodservices in North America.
Malaysia: economic transformation advances oil palm industry
Malaysia is currently the world’s largest exporter of palm oil although it is the second-largest producer of the oil after neighboring Indonesia.
Using enzymes to prepare biobased surfactants
Enzyme-catalyzed syntheses possess many intriguing advantages as green-manufacturing approaches to prepare biobased surfactants.
Oilseeds: at the center of food, water, and energy security
Readers have indicated the sustainable use of food, water, and energy by the world’s growing population will be the most pressing challenge. Here, inform explores the interrelatedness of these critical resources.
Hydrocolloids get personal
For decades, food manufacturers have added hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum, pectin, and carrageenan to give salad dressings, jams, ice creams, and other foods their characteristic textures.
Health & Nutrition News
Sperm quality and dietary fat
The secrets of Belgian chocolate
Belgium produces 270,000 metric tons of chocolate each year and boasts more than 2,000 chocolate shops. But what is it about Belgian chocolate that makes it so smooth, flavorful, and melt-in-your-mouth irresistible?
Plants “remember” drought, adapt
Research carried out at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL; USA) shows that plants subjected to a previous period of drought learn to deal with the stress owing to their “memories” of the experience.
Oil in biomass: a step-change for bioenergy production?
To help meet the rapidly growing demand for biofuels, scientists and policy makers envision that a variety of agricultural, municipal, and forest-derived feedstocks will be used to produce “second-generation” biofuels.
The power of mass spectrometry in the detection of fraud
Fraudulent products cost industry billions of dollars each year. Perfumes are a good example.
The Future of LAB
The global linear alkylbenzene (LAB) industry has experienced depressed margins and feedstock shortages during the past few years. The following is an analysis of the industry’s current state and its most likely future.
World supplies of rapeseed and canola likely to remain tight in the 2012/13 season
Even if Canadian farmers harvest a record canola crop of 14.5–15.0 million metric tons (MMT) in late summer 2012, there is a high probability that world production of rapeseed and canola will remain behind requirements in the 2012/13 season—mainly due to poor winter crop production prospects in the European Union (EU) and Ukraine.
Supercritical fluid-based extraction/processing: then and now
An expert in supercritical fluid technologies reviews past, present, and future developments in this field as they relate to lipids.
The Food Safety Modernization Act and its relevance to the oilseed industry
Singapore: the place to be in October 2012
This rare meeting of minds will continue the conversation that began at the 2010 Montreux World Conference, a premier industry event that is held every four years in Montreux, Switzerland.
Methods for differentiating recycled cooking oil needed in China
Researchers from the West China School of Public Health at Sichuan University in Chengdu, China, explain why the reuse of recycled cooking oil, or “gutter oil,” is such a difficult problem for government and public health officials to address.
Oilseeds in Australia
Australia is now one of the world’s top three exporters of canola oil. inform takes a closer look at the factors that have advanced oilseed production in that country.
Benefits vs. risks of fish consumption
The benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks, according to a joint expert consultation released in October 2011 by two United Nations agencies.
A new generation of renewable fuels is on the horizon
The lead inventor of a suite of technologies that can be used to convert triglyceride oils from camelina and other plants into renewable fuels and chemicals discusses two process schemes that are nearing commercialization.
Hydrogen peroxide in home-care formulations
Hydrogen peroxide-based bleaches are gentler to colors and fibers, are odorless, and have very low environmental impact. A research manager at Church & Dwight Co. describes the chemistry behind their development.
Omega-3 fatty acids: $13 billion global market
Awareness of omega-3 fatty acids as being among the most important nutrients for physical and mental health has reached critical mass, according to a new report on “Omega-3: Global Product Trends and Opportunities” from Packaged Facts, a division of MarketResearch.com.
Soy and breast cancer
Are soy foods safe for breast cancer patients? Soy is a rich source of isoflavones (primarily genistein, daidzein, and glycitein). The standard oral therapy undertaken after initial treatment (known as “adjuvant therapy”) for estrogen-sensitive cancers is either tamoxifen, which binds to estrogen receptors and stops cell growth signaling, or an aromatase inhibitor, which inhibits production of estrogen in the body.
IOM panel recommends tripling vitamin D intake: Panel’s conservative approach receives criticism
The 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, May 1–4, 2011, featured a Hot Topic Symposium and subsequent panel discussion on the new intake recommendations for vitamin D made by the US Institute of Medicine. Science and health writer David Piller takes a closer look.
EU approves food labeling rules
New food-labeling regulations are in place in the European Union after the European Parliament (EP) approved rules aimed at helping consumers make “better informed, healthier [sic] choices.”
Self-assembly of lyotropic liquid crystals: from fundamentals to applications
AOCS Young Scientist Research Award recipient Raffaele Mezzenga describes self-assembly in lipidic mesophases and the potential of this phenomenon in modern processed foods.
This month’s Sustainability Watch column was provided by Marguerite Torrey, inform technical projects editor. Following is her summary of the hot topic on sustainable technologies presented on Tuesday, May 3, at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo.
The trouble with crystal polymorphism
Crystal polymorphism is one of the most widely studied structural characteristics of fats used in spreads, shortening, and confectionery applications. Simply put, polymorphism refers to the fact that triacylglycerols (TAG), and other lipids, can crystallize in different crystal types—all having, on average, the same chemical composition.
Are algae really feasible as fuel?
Great effort—-and lots of money—-is being expended to develop algae as a feedstock for transportation fuel. There doesn’t seem to be a clear answer yet, however, as to whether algae will ever be economically viable for this purpose.
Insect oils: Nutritional and industrial applications
Many researchers have investigated wild plants as a new source of oils, but until now few have seriously considered insects. A recent analysis from Sudan indicates that insect oils offer several nutritional benefits and meet many of the specifications for biodiesel.
You are what your mother ate
Poor diet during pregnancy increases an offspring’s vulnerability to the effects of aging, according to research by scientists at the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, UK).
A three-year study of commercial laundry liquids in Western Europe and the United States traces the evolution of surfactant systems.
US eggs now lower in cholesterol
According to new nutrition data from the US Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), eggs are lower in cholesterol than previously believed.
Maybe we don’t know beans . . .
Greater media attention is being paid to the health benefits of beans and legumes, but how much do we really know about the topic? Donna M. Winham reports.
How to control eating behavior--in mice
By illuminating key nerve cells that regulate feeding behavior, researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Virginia, USA, have discovered how to prod mice to eat voraciously-or sparingly-thanks to a "radiant" new technology.
Short- and long-term price forecasting for palm and lauric oils
Dorab E. Mistry presents excerpts from a talk he delivered at the 6th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference (IPOC) & 2011 Price Outlook, organized by the Indonesian Palm Oil Association (GAPKI) and held December 1–3, 2010, at the Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali.
New 3-MCPD (glycidol ester) method
A direct method for the determination of fatty acid esters of both 3-MCPD and glyci¬dol has been published in the Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (JAOCS).
Regulatory issues associated with the international oils & fats trade
FOSFA’s John Hancock reviews three major areas of regulation of the global trading of oils and fats.
Point-counterpoint on UC Davis olive oil report
In July 2010, the University of California Davis Olive Center released a report on olive oil labeling questioning the trueness-to-grade of extra virgin olive oil imported into the United States. The Executive Secretariat of the International Olive Council (IOC) responds to that report, and authors of the UC Davis report--Edwin N. Frankel, Rodney J. Mailer, Selina Wang, Charles F. Shoemaker, and Dan Flynn--address IOC’s response.
Biomass--The next revolution in surfactants?
Neil A. Burns examines this potential player in the surfactant value chain.
With the December 2010 issue, inform begins a new column, featuring some of the latest news and research on sustainability.
One person’s response to a high omega-6 diet
In a departure from the norm, inform presents a single-subject study from Queen of Fats author Susan Allport. In this first-person account, Allport writes about how a monthlong experiment in radically altering her diet had almost immediate effects.
Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels
Nutrient removal and net costs weigh on decisions to use crop residues as biofuel feedstocks.
Universal detectors for determination of lipids in biodiesel production
Biodiesel is often produced by reacting plant or animal oils with an alcohol to form the desired alkyl esters as fuel, and this transesterification is typically achieved using a base. This also produces free glycerol and acylglycerols as impurities in the biodiesel that must be limited in the final fuel product because they form harmful deposits in engines and damage emissions control systems.
New very long chain fatty acid seed oils produced through introduction of strategic genes into Brassica carinata
For the emerging global bioeconomy, crop development and enhancement of species diversity are essential. Equally important is maximizing crop value through total crop utilization. We are developing Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) as a biorefinery and bioindustrial oils crop platform using traditional and molecular breeding techniques and tools (see review by Taylor et al., 2010).
Questioning the virginity of olive oils
Is a significant percentage of olive oil labeled as “extra virgin” and imported into the United States for retail sale out of spec with international and US standards?
Surfactants based on monounsaturated fatty acids for enhanced oil recovery
Recent estimates for the amount of surfactant necessary to meet projected enhanced oil recovery demand indicate that this volume would rival the current use of surfactants in detergents. In part one of a series, Paul Berger details how monounsaturated fatty acids could be used to help meet this demand.
Keeping up with detergent chemistry
The detergent industry is highly competitive, mostly recession proof, and, thanks to chemistry, always changing ever so slightly. It has been years, however, since cleaning chemistry has been the driving force in detergent innovation. Instead, the environment rules in laundry rooms and kitchens.
Dietary guidelines report released
The Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 was released in June by the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services.
In 1992, during the AOCS World Conference in Budapest (Dijkstra, 1993), I launched the enzymatic degumming process EnzyMax® on behalf of Lurgi, the company that had developed this process.
News from the Expo floor
Sustainability, the recession, and challenges to the biodiesel industry were three major topics raised by a number of exhibitors at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, May 16–19, 2010.
AOCS 2.0 debuts
A drum roll, please: The new AOCS web experience, otherwise known as AOCS 2.0, debuted in early May. The unveiling followed more than a year of extraordinary efforts by all members of the AOCS staff, led by AOCS Web Strategy Manager Amy Lopez.
First high-GLA safflower oil on market
The first high-GLA safflower oil has reached the market at commercial scale after six years of research and development work by Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. (Davis, California, USA).
Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel: Next-generation palm biodiesel
The promise of alternative low-cost non-food feedstocks such as jatropha has yet to materialize, and there seems to be, at the current moment, no light at the end of the tunnel in the search for low-cost feedstock alternatives.
Palm oil pundit speaks
Dorab E. Mistry, director of Godrej International Ltd. in Mumbai, India, spoke about palm oil on March 15, 2010, during the 2010 Annual Convention of the National Institute of Oilseed Products in Palm Springs, California, USA.
The ultra-low-linolenic soybean market
Does the failure of Asoyia Inc., the Iowa-based company that marketed 1% ultra-low-linolenic soybeans and soy oil, signal the beginning of the end for the ultra-low-linolenic soy oil market in the United States?
What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?
The high oil content of the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill.) has been known since Aztec times, with the fruit sometimes referred to as "vegetable butter" or "butter pear."
Hempseed oil in a nutshell
Industrial hemp is as a class of non-drug Cannabis sativa varieties, and hempseed is technically an achene, or nut. Both the seed and hemp's tall stalk provide significant carbohydrate feedstocks for a wide variety of industrial purposes in several countries.
Dealing with the media: A cautionary tale
Go to the Turner Classic Movies website and you will find this statement: "We have the following four movies starring Larry Johnson available."
Q&A with Bill Christie
Catherine Watkins, associate editor of inform, recently posed a series of questions to the creator of The Lipid Library, William W. Christie
Giants of the Past: Hermann Pardun (1908-2009)
Who was this German oil and lecithin pioneer, and how did his inventions change the lecithin world?
Update on Jatropha
Inedible oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas is reputedly a wonder crop for biofuels in the middle latitudes of the globe (~30°N to ~30°S) because (i) it is not a source of food, (ii) it can be home-grown, reducing or eliminating the need to import petroleum-based fuels
Unique properties of carbon dioxide-expanded lipids
Stricter environmental laws related to the use of organic solvents in many areas of the fats and oils industry have stimulated the search for sustainable technologies for lipid processing. Furthermore, as consumers demand "natural" products, the use of potentially toxic solvents in various production processes is being scrutinized
The market situation and political framework in Germany for biodiesel and vegetable oil
The final details compiled by the Federal Statistics Office and Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) confirmed the drop in sales of biodiesel and vegetable oil in Germany in 2008 in comparison to 2007. Although utilization of biodiesel as an admixture component in fossil diesel fuel increased by 190,000
Industrial oil crops-when will they finally deliver on their promise ?
In 2008, worldwide-traded oil production from crop plants was almost 130 million metric tons (MMT), mostly used as edible vegetable oil. The proportion of plant oils used for nonedible or industrial purposes has fluctuated as petroleum and coal feedstocks incre asingly competed with plant oils as sources of hydrocarbon-based products such as polymers, lubricants, fine chemicals, and fuels.
Kao suspends DAG oil shipments
On September 16, Kao Corp. suspended shipments in Japan of its 59 diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-based products, citing the presence of glycidol esters
Chemically enhanced oil recovery stages a comeback
Nobody knows how much petroleum is left in the ground; estimates range from one trillion to four trillion barrels. Current global production of petroleum is about 85 million barrels/day (bbl/d), or more than 30 billion bbl/year. OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) expects demand by developing countries to increase global production to 107 million bbl/d by 2030.
Field-portable mass spectrometers for onsite analytics: What's next?
The need for rapid, onsite chemical analyses is as apparent as it has ever been, especially for compounds detrimental to health or to the environment, such as toxic industrial species, explosives, chemical warfare agents, and environmental toxins.
Melamine analysis at the forefront
Recent food safety scares involving melamine have put the development of new standards and methods for protein detection on the fast track
To make biofuels, or not to make biofuels:That is the question.
In the past five years or so, opinion regarding the manufacture of biofuels has swung between approval and disapproval, and back again. First-generation fuels in particular, which are made from materials that can also serve as human or animal food, were initially praised, but then castigated
Global oil yields: Have we got it seriously wrong?
Up to now, most oilseed crop specialists have assumed that one metric ton (MT) per hectare (1MT/ha) was a pretty good ballpark figure for average oil yields from annual oilseed crops such as canola or sunflower.
Omega-3 fatty acid profiling and dietary forensics
The following article is based on the address given by Ken D. Stark, the 2009 AOCS Young Scientist Research Award winner, at the 100th AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, May 3-6.
Oilseeds of the future part 3
The final collection of questionnaire responses in a series of three articles highlighting trait-modified oilseeds in the global R&D pipeline concludes with a look at work in safflower, soy, and sunflower. Catherine Watkins
The rise and fall of surfactants lore
Significant changes have occurred in the surfacThe rise and fall of surfactants lore tants industry in the past 30 years, both in terms of what we consider to be important and in the paradigms that we operate under. The following discussion highlights my view of the significant changes that have occurred and is based entirely on my experience, recollection, and opinion.
Codex Alimentarius Commission update
AOCS Technical Director Richard Cantrill attended recent meetings of two Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) committees that deal with issues of interest to the fats and oils industry. Topics discussed included work to update the standard on named vegetable oils, amendments to the standard on olive oil, the code of practice for the storage and transport of edible fats and oils in bulk
Oilseeds of the future: Part 2
inform's examination of some of the trait-modified oilseeds currently in research and development pipelines around the world continues with this month's look at work in cottonseed, flax, and oil palm.
Oilseeds of the future: Part 1
To find out about some of the modified oilseeds working their way through the research and development pipeline, inform recently solicited information from a variety of companies and research institutions via an e-mailed questionnaire. CANOLA/ RAPESEED/ MUSTARD (Brassicaceae)
Raw material sources for the long-chain omega-3 market:Trends and sustainability. Part 3.
When you think you have successfully developed an oil with the correct omega-3 configuration, in a volume that meets your needs, you will then be faced with another up-and-coming barrier: sustainability of the raw materials. This ties in with the headlines mentioned in part 1 of this report (inform 20:178-181, 2009).
Chloroesters in foods: An emerging issue
The detection, in some foods and vegetable oils, of fatty acid esters of the contaminant known as 3-MCPD is an emerging issue for food and vegetable oil processors
Raw material sources for the long-chain omega-3 market: Trends and sustainability. Part 2.
A recent report from the Global Organization for EPA and DHA (GOED 2008, where EPA is eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA is docosahexaenoic acid) indicates that the omega-3 market has reached $13 billion. Actually, about $180 million covers raw materials, $1.28 billion covers refined oils and concentrates, and $13.1 billion covers consumer products. The structure of the omega-3 fish oil market is somewhat complex, with many companies and many joint ventures and/or strategic alliances involved at various layers within the industry.
Raw material sources for the long-chain omega-3 market:Trends and sustainability. Part 1.
The scientific and popular press is awash in headlines and articles depicting the impending collapse of the global wild fisheries. Headlines such as "Oceans in Peril," "Ocean Life Fading, What Can Be Done?" "The Fishing Catastrophe and What We Can Do About It," "SOS for Fading Ocean Life," "Tuvalu About to Disappear into the Ocean," "SOS for Fading Ocean Life," and "Ocean Time Bomb" are just a few examples. In more recent times, attention is being paid to the pelagic fisheries with such headlines as "Eating Smelly Fish Could Save Endangered Species," "Most Fish Goes into Animal Feed," "Our Oceans Overfished to Feed Pigs," and "Pets Eating into Fish Stocks." One report has indicated that the oceans will be empty by 2048.
Synthetic HDL created
Scientists at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA) have created a promising new weapon-synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol-that could help fight chronically high cholesterol levels.
Carbon management 101:
A conversation with Eric Jackson Through their work, the two clarify the complexities of the emerging carbon markets and help companies identify and manage carbon risks and opportunities. inform's Catherine Watkins recently talked with Jackson about the basics of carbon management.
A convenient way to increase legume intake
Until about 15 years ago, soyfoods were popular only with vegetarians and other health-conscious individuals. But with a growing body of research on the health benefits of these foods, mainstream consumers are now embracing them as well. And in response to demand, conventional grocery stores are just as likely as food co-operatives and health food markets to offer these foods.
Vitamin E’s safety controversy
One of the strongest examples today of science no longer being self-correcting is the overblown controversy over the safety of vitamin E formulas. This vitamin actually has eight compounds associated with it in the diet: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Strictly, vitamin E is only alpha-tocopherol (?-tocopherol; 1 mg = 1.49 IU, international units), whereas these isomers are collectively known as “vitamin E complex.”
Universal mechanism of aging uncovered?
Researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS: Boston, USA) have discovered that DNA damage decreases a cell’s ability to regulate which genes are turned on and off in particular settings. This mechanism, which applies both to fungi and to humans, might represent a universal culprit for aging.