trans Fatty Acids
FDA's Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils
Listen to the webinar.
Brought to you by AOCS (American Oil Chemists’ Society) and provided exclusive access to our special guest speaker, Robert A. Hahn, principal attorney at Olsson Frank Weeda Terman Matz PC. Hahn specializes in FDA regulation of food and dietary supplements. The core of his practice consists of advising food and dietary supplement firms – including manufacturers, processors, distributors, retailers, and trade associations – on FDA regulatory issues including labeling, advertising and marketing, product formulation, food safety (including compliance with the Food Safety Modernization Act), food defense, import/export, inspection, recall, and enforcement matters.
Products and References
- The legal basis for FDA’s determination
- The scope of FDA’s determination
- Compliance and enforcement issues
More information is available at inform|connect.
Commonly Known as trans Fats and Partially Hydrogenated Oils (PHO)
trans Fatty Acids and PHO
Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) are vegetable oils that have undergone chemical processing to replace double bonds—unsaturated areas—with hydrogen. As hydrogen saturates the fatty acids, the remaining double bonds can move and change their isometric geometry to form trans fatty acids. The result is the presence of 10-60% trans fatty acids in PHO making these oils the primary source of trans fat. PHO have been long used in industry for their effects on shelf life, stability, melting point and flavor in foods though their use has been in decline over recent years largely owing to label declaration regulations. It should be noted though that PHO are not the only source of trans fatty acids. Ruminant animals produce trans fatty acids during digestion. Products that come from those animals (i.e., cream, cheese, milk, steak) all have naturally occurring amounts of trans fatty acids present in their lipid profile.
AOCS Provides Validated Methods for trans Fatty Acid Analysis
FDA and international industry experts have recognized and utilized AOCS Methods to determine trans fatty acid profiles in foods.
- AOCS Official Method Ce 1h-05
Determination of cis-, trans-, Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Vegetable or Non-Ruminant Animal Oils and Fats by Capillary GLC
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of vegetable and non-ruminant animal fat and oil samples are separated according to chain length, degree of unsaturation, and geometry and position of double bonds by capillary GLC with a highly polar stationary phase
- AOCS Official Method Ce 1j-07
Determination of cis-, trans-, Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Extracted Fats by Capillary GLC
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of extracted fat samples are separated according to chain length, degree of unsaturation, and geometry and position of double bonds by capillary GLC with a highly polar stationary phase.
- AOCS Official Method Ce 2b-11
Direct Methylation of Lipids in Foods by Alkali Hydrolysis
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from food matrices are prepared with simultaneous alkali hydrolysis and methylation without prior digestion. Incorporation of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards allows the quantification of total fat and fatty acids using Theoretical Correction Factors (TCFs) and Empirical Correction Factors (ECFs).
- AOCS Official Method Ce 2c-11
Direct Methylation of Lipids in Foods by Acid-Alkali Hydrolysis
Direct Methylation of Lipids in Foods by Acid-Alkali Hydrolysis Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from food matrices are prepared by in situ acid digestion followed by alkali hydrolysis and methylation.