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Research, processing and product innovation for foods and value-added products

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Friday, February 4:

Friday, February 4: Welcome and Keynote Address

Welcome and Opening Remarks

Keynote Address

Playing with lipids: a fun but serious game
N. A. Michael Eskin C.M. O.M. Ph.D FIFT FAOCS FCIFST FIFST, Professor, Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Lipids are an essential component of our diet. Prior to the introduction and the development of canola, Canada was mainly known for the excellent quality of its wheat. Professor Eskin joined the University of Manitoba when rapeseed, a crop initially introduced to Canada by an immigrant farmer from Poland in the 1930s, was being dramatically changed by two dedicated plant breeders, the late Baldur Stefansson and Keith Downey. His initial work on lipids was studying lipoxygenases in faba beans which was being promoted at that time. The late Professor Marion Vaisey-Genser introduced Professor Eskin to a number of lipid projects including the oxidative deterioration of canned whitefish as well as this newly developed low erucic acid rapeseed oil, subsequently called canola oil. This presentation will cover the highlights of his research on lipids and the challenges and fun working with this much maligned macronutrient.

Advances in Plant and Marine Lipids

Session Chair
Xiao Qiu, PhD, Professor, Deparment of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Session Introduction

This session focuses on recent advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and functional genomics in plant and marine lipids.

8:45-9:15 a.m. CST (Chicago, USA; UTC-06)
Session Keynote

Dissecting the biosynthetic machinery in bacterial polyunsaturated fatty acid synthases
Yasushi Ogasawara, Associate Professor; and Tohru Dairi, Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan

Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 ω3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 ω3), and arachidonic acid (ARA; C20:4 ω6) are essential fatty acids for humans and are biosynthesized by two pathways, the aerobic desaturase/elongase pathway and the anaerobic PUFA synthase pathway. In the former pathway, multiple desaturases and elongases catalyze sequential desaturation and elongation from oleic acid (C18:1 ω9). In the latter pathway, PUFA synthases, type I fatty acid synthase-like huge enzyme complexes with multiple catalytic domains, biosynthesize PUFA from malonyl-CoA as the sole building block. Interestingly, domain organization of all PUFA synthases are similar to each other even though individual PUFA synthase creates a specific PUFA. Thus, understanding of their detailed biosynthetic machinery, especially mechanism to determine product profiles, are important for molecular engineering for industrial PUFA productions.

Here, we investigated the detailed function of each catalytic domain through in vivo and in vitro experiments using bacterial DHA, EPA, and ARA synthases. Our key findings are that (1) two types of dehydratase (DH) domains controlled the first cis double bond position, ω3 or ω6, (2) PUFA synthase utilized two KS domains (KSA and KSC) depending on carbon chain length of the intermediates, and the substrate specificity of the KSC against C20 intermediate was important for controlling carbon chain length, C20 or C22, (3) acyltransferase (AT)-like domains catalyzed the hydrolysis of acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain-tethered PUFA to yield free PUFA. Conversion of the microalgae DHA synthase to EPA synthase based on the obtained results will also be discussed.

Reallocating seed carbon from cellulose to oil and protein by metabolic engineering
Guanqun (Gavin) Chen, Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in Plant Lipid Biotechnology, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Canola (Brassica napus) is the major oilseed crop cultivated in the Canadian Prairies. After oil extraction, the leftover protein (about 25% seed weight) and carbohydrate meal is mostly used as animal feed. The seed coat carbohydrates in the meal can inhibit animal digestion and represent a low-value use of carbon, while the seed protein has potential in the plant-based protein industry. One potential avenue of improving the value of canola meal is by redirecting carbon from seed coat cellulose to seed storage proteins. Because genetic characterization of candidate genes in canola is time and labor-intensive, we propose creating a rapid genetic screening platform using Arabidopsis thaliana, a close relative of canola. We are metabolically engineering Arabidopsis to have reduced seed cellulose through AtCESA1-RNAi and increased seed oil through BnDGAT1-overexpression. The Arabidopsis lines would be used to test genes involved in increased protein content without penalizing seed oil and use gene stacking to simultaneously increase seed oil and protein. So far, we have obtained homozygous Arabidopsis lines with the downregulation of AtCESA1 and overexpression of BnDGAT1 variants, which have decreased cellulose content and increased or stable oil content. We are using the Arabidopsis lines to test candidate genes for increasing seed protein, with the aim to find promising gene combinations for canola breeding.

Stepwise metabolic engineering of a new very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in oilseed crop
Dauenpen Meesapyodsuk, Research Scientist, National Research Council Canada; and Xiao Qiu, Professor, Department of Food & Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Docosadienoic acid (DDA, 22:2-n6) and docosatrienoic acid (DTA, 22:3-n3) are two new very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) that are recently shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties comparable to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6-n3). However, there is no rich natural source for these fatty acids. An ELO type elongase (EhELO1) identified from wild plant Eranthis hyemalis was initially used to produce these fatty acids in oilseed crop Brassica carinata. Although a considerable amount of DDA and DTA was produced, these fatty acids were excluded from the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols. Therefore, a cytoplasmic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (EhLPAAT2) identified from E. hyemalis was subsequently used for the incorporation of the two fatty acids into the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols. To improve the production of DTA, two omega-3 desaturases from fungi with different regioselectivity were finally exploited to convert omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. Improved production of DTA and DDA in the oilseed crop using the stepwise strategy provides a real commercial opportunity for high value agriculture products for nutraceutical uses.

Fast neutron mutagenesis of Camelina sativa and identification of lines with reduced seed gondoic acid content
Xinjie Liu, Student, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; and Mark Smith, Research Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Government of Canada

Camelina sativa is a minor oilseed crop with potential for increased production in Canada due to its unique seed oil profile, relatively low input requirements and the availability of both spring and winter types. An obstacle to the improvement of camelina through breeding is the limited genetic diversity of the species. Therefore, in this project, Camelina seeds were treated with Fast Neutron (FN) irradiation in a dose gradient from 7 to 49 Gray (Gy) to induce genetic variation. FN irradiation has been shown to generate a range of mutations such as deletions, point mutations and rearrangement through DNA damage and its repair. Compared to chemical mutagenesis, FN irradiation results in a higher rate of gene silencing and has the potential to disrupt tandemly duplicated genes in the Camelina genome. Germination assays of irradiated seeds showed that the FN irradiation did not impact the germination rate. A FN mutagenesis population was generated from irradiated seeds for phenotypic and genetic characterization. Visual phenotypic observations have seen plants with reduced branching, variable leaf shape and male sterility. Analysis of seed fatty acids has identified lines with altered fatty acid composition. One mutant line with a deletion of around 1.2kb spanning the 5’ UTR and the front half of the FAE1B-ORF was found. The fatty acid composition of this line contains a lower content of C20:1 than the wild type (Midas) and other mutant lines that did not carry the deletion. The line is currently undergoing backcrossing to an elite Camelina line, and seed fatty acid profiles during seed development are being examined.

Lipids and Antioxidants

Session Chair
Mehmet Tulbek, PhD, President, Saskatchewan Food Industry Development Centre, Canada; Janitha Wanasundara, PhD, Research Scientist, Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; and Martin Scanlon, Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Session Introduction

This session focuses on lipids and antioxidants, in particular from canola and mustard crops.

Session Keynote

Mustard phenolics: potential natural antioxidants
Thu Nguyen, Master’s Student; Ruchira Nandasiri, Postdoctoral Research Fellow; and Michael Eskin, Professor, Food and Human Nutrition Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Canada is a major producer of mustard for utilization as a condiment/spice due to its strong flavor and odor. Among the many flavor compounds are phenolics, the major ones being sinapine and sinapic acid, together with a number of minor compounds. Previous reports have shown that different pre-treatment conditions prior to the extraction can enhance the phenolic composition of mustard and improve its antioxidant activity. Alternative green extractants are being examined for extracting these natural antioxidative phenolic compounds for use in the food industry as shelf-life enhancers. Recent studies in our laboratory confirmed that changes in the pH from acidic (pH < 7) to neutral (pH = 7), followed by pressurized heat, significantly (p > 0.05) increased the phenolic compounds, particularly canolol. The latter is formed from sinapine and sinapic acid. To our knowledge this is the first report associating a change in pH with an increase in the concentration of canolol. Such transformation will directly benefit the oilseed industry by enhancing the formation of canolol from sinapine and sinapic acid.

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of canola seed residual meal obtained by air frying pre-treatment technique
Olamide Fadairo, PhD Candidate; Ruchira Nandasiri, Postdoctoral Research Fellow; and Michael Eskin, Professor, Food and Human Nutrition Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

The initial screening of phenolic extracts is essential in predicting their antioxidant capacities. This study investigated the in-vitro antioxidative activities of canola meal extracts obtained at different air frying pretreatment conditions of 160, 170,180 and 190 °C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins respectively. Canola meal extracts were evaluated using various in-vitro antioxidant assays such as a, a-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal ion chelation power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The results showed that DPPH radical scavenging ability of the canola meal extracts pre-treated at different air frying conditions ranged from 72.8 to 79.8% while the FRAP ranged from 0.31 to 0.5 mmol Fe. In addition, the metal ion chelation activity of canola meal extracts ranged from 63 to 79.9%. Canola meal extracts obtained from air frying pre-treatment showed antioxidant potential which can be utilized as an ingredient in functional food and feed formulation.

Evaluation of emulsion droplet crystallinity and lipid bioaccessibility using a dynamic in vitro model
Ye Ling Li, MSc Student; Samar Hamad, PhD; Run Chen, MSc; Zhitong Zhou, PhD Candidate, Pedram Nasr, MSc; and Michael Rogers, Professor, Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Canada

Emulsion structuring directly impacts the rational design of many food products. Moreover, the physical state of emulsified triacylglycerols (TAG) (i.e., solid vs. liquid) has the potential to affect fatty acid bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract, with consequences for bioavailability and postprandial lipemia which is related to cardiovascular disease risk. This study aimed to compare the fatty acid bioaccessibility of 10% oil-in-water emulsions made using palm stearin (PS) or palm olein and stabilized with 0.4% Span 60. The samples were compositionally equivalent PS emulsions tempered to be partially crystalline (PS-SE) or undercooled liquid (PS-LE) and liquid palm olein emulsion (PO) all with overlapping monomodal particle size distributions (~ 417 nm). These were subjected to dynamic in vitro digestion using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) fed state protocol over a 6-hour experimental time frame. The PS-SE, among all samples, had the lowest cumulative bioaccessibility at 6-hours and was significantly different from PO (p < 0.05), whereas PS-LE and PO values did not differ. The sample without any crystallinity, i.e., PO demonstrated faster initial lipolysis with higher values than PS-LE up to 4-hours. However, there were no statistical differences in the 6-hour cumulative bioaccessibility or area under the curve values and, according to the shifted logistics model, the emulsions did not differ. The results highlight that fatty acid bioaccessibility can be influenced by emulsion physical state, specifically that liquid-state samples are more readily digested compared to samples containing crystallinity. This concurs with a previous human study showing earlier and also greater rises in plasma TAG when healthy male participants consumed PS-LE versus PS-SE. Collectively, the results point to the partial alignment between in vitro and in vivo methods and highlight the implications of TAG physical properties for digestive processes that determine absorption.

Curcumin-loaded protein and protein-chitosan nanocomplexes reduce rupturing of giant unilamellar vesicles compared to hollow nanoparticles: preliminary investigation into bio-nano interaction
Ogadimma Okagu, PhD Candidate; Raliat Abioye, PhD Student; and Chibuike Udenigwe, Professor and University Research Chair in Food Properties and Nutrient Bioavailability, School of Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Canada

The physicochemical and structural properties of bioactive compound-loaded protein nanoparticles with promising food application could also have unwanted physiological effects. Therefore, understanding the nature of interaction of bioactive compound-loaded nanoparticles with physiological components is crucial in assessing the safety of nanoparticles during gastrointestinal delivery of encapsulated nutraceutical compounds and their potential application in nanomedicine. Curcumin-loaded native and succinylated protein nanoparticles, and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) were used in this study as model bioactive compound loaded-nanoparticles and biomembrane, respectively. Curcumin-loaded native protein-chitosan (CUR/PPI/CHI) and succinylated protein-chitosan (CUR/SPPI/CHI) complexes as well as native protein-chitosan (PPI/CHI) and succinylated protein-chitosan hollow (SPPI/CHI) induced leakage of calcein encapsulated in the unilamellar vesicle. The leakage was more pronounced with hollow protein-chitosan complexes. Moreover, curcumin-loaded native protein (CUR/PPI) and curcumin-loaded succinylated protein (CUR/PPI) induced calcein fluorescence quenching. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the interaction of CUR/PPI, CUR/SPPI, PPI/CHI and SPPI/CHI with the GUVs caused a major reduction in the size of the vesicles. Confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy showed rupturing of the unilamelar vesicles after treatment with PPI/CHI and SPPI/CHI. Overall, the nature of interaction between curcumin-loaded protein nanoparticles with biomembranes at the bio-nano interface is greatly influenced by the encapsulated bioactive compound, which stabilizes the macromolecule used as delivery vehicle. Therefore, as the protein plays a crucial role in stabilizing the bioactive compound from chemical and photodegradation, the encapsulated nutraceutical stabilizes the macromolecule to lower nanoparticle interaction with biomembranes.

Emerging Technology

Session Chair
Farah Hosseinian , PhD, Professor, Food Science, Chemistry, Carleton University, Canada; Véronique Barthet, PhD, Research Scientist and Program Manager, Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission, Canada; and Marleny D.A. Saldaña, PhD, Professor, Food/Bio-Engineering Processing, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Session Introduction

Environmental, industry and consumer needs are constantly evolving, and there is a significant need for new technology and innovations in every aspect of the food system. There is potential for smart technologies including artificial intelligence, machine learning, 3D printing, and other digital tools to create a safer and a sustainable future food system and to improve the post‐pandemic food supply chain. The COVID‐19 pandemic is having a tremendous effect on the current food system and accelerates for example the digitalization of diets. This session will highlight new Canadian technologies and market‐ready innovations across a vast area improving food safety, healthy diets, screening, nutrition, food design, food production and consumption, reducing food illness, greenhouse gas emissions and substantial food waste.

The Future of Food Manufacturing
Brad McKay, President, Wholesome Kids Catering, Canada

With the world’s population expected to grow by 2 billion by 2050 we will need new and innovative means of safely producing, manufacturing, and delivering food in manner that is environmentally sustainable. This talk will start with a look at the history of food and then take you to world 30 years from now where eating habits will be very different from now, where food will be portable, individual, sustainable, where our means of producing and acquiring food will be different and where food manufacturing will be digital, regional, and sustainable as we manufacture an ever-increasing amount of nourishing food without destroying the planet.

New bioactive fiber for beverages
Nuria Marti, Professor; Rosa Heredia; Julio Salazar; Bryan Moreno; Concha Martínez; Domingo Saura; and Manuel Valero, Miguel Hernandez University, Spain

In recent decades there has been a change in diet which, together with a more sedentary lifestyle, has led to an increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In addition, insufficient education leads to consumption that is easily influenced by people's preferences and product costs. This leads to health problems and negative effects on the environment caused by intensive production. Therefore, there is a need for equity at the nutritional level, related, in turn, to the sustainability of processes in the agri-food industry. In this sense, the aim is to reduce its impact through the use of the byproduct generated, using less aggressive technologies (eutectic liquids). A byproduct of low economic value, but with great potential at the food level. In this regard, the persimmon (Diospyros kaki T.) is one of the fruits with the highest concentration of bioactive compounds, such as fiber and phytochemicals, which have a positive effect on the organism. Since they cannot be consumed throughout the year, the development of functional foods incorporating them is of great interest. In the present work, the properties of persimmon dietary fiber from two varieties, Sharoni and Rojo Brillante were evaluated, determining which one had the best characteristics to be introduced in different commercial beverages. Likewise, a sensory evaluation was carried out on untrained panelists to conclude the acceptability of these products in the real population and market.

Hypobaric and ultrasonic processing of by-products from persimmon (diospyros kaki thunb)
Domingo Saura; Marta Hernández; Julio Salazar; Bryan Moreno; Concha Martínez; Manuel Valero; and Nuria Martí, Miguel Hernandez University, Spain

The aim of the present study was to optimize the processing of by-products of persimmon (Diospyroskaki Thunb.) to obtain a purified polysaccharide and test its interaction with drugs during in vitro digestion. Acetaminophen was used as a model drug. Processing conditions from by-products were optimized, hypobaric, ultrasound and drying conditions were tested at three levels of time, and pH. The optimized conditions were evaluated for in vitro release studies. Optimal conditions were 3 cycles of vacuum explosion assisted extraction (VEAE), 15 minutes of ultrasound assisted extraction (USAE) and pH=1.5. Antioxidant capacity was found to be around 0.029 μmol of Trolox equivalents per mg of fiber sample after the USAE treatment; and around 0.174 μmol of Trolox equivalents per mg of fiber sample after the VEAE treatment. Zeta (ζ) potential was in the range of 1.906 mV (σ=5.56) after the USAE treatment; and in the range of -314 mV (σ=1.69) after the VEAE treatment. The release mechanisms and the release rate kinetics of the capsules were examined using in vitro dissolution testing models. Processed by-products of persimmon exhibited an excellent retarding effect on drug release. The kinetics of drug release from the polysaccharide matrix predominantly follows Korsmeyer-Peppas patterns.

Pressurized fluid processes: biorefinery and the production of high value-added products
Marleny D.A. Saldaña, Professor, Food/Bio-Engineering Processing, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Enormous amounts of by-products from the Agri-Food industry are generated worldwide yearly. Pressurized fluids such as supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and subcritical water are considered “green” and environmentally friendly solvents. Research in my laboratory has intensified on the use of these solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds from these by-products and the use of SC-CO2 in wide variety of unit operations. In this presentation, some examples of high value products after processing with subcritical water and SC-CO2 will be provided. In addition, some examples using the biorefinery concept in the processing of crops and by-products aiming the production of new functional products and high value-added co-products will be discussed. Finally, new biorefinery models, from the integration and intensification of processes, using non-thermal and clean emerging technologies such as SC-CO2, pressurized liquid, high-intensity ultrasound, and pulsed electric field will be also presented.

Recent Trends in Food Processing Technologies: Overview of Challenges and Prospects
Tatiana Koutchma, PhD, Research Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Over the last two decades, food processing technologies have evolved to provide alternatives to traditional heat treatments to enhance safety, extend shelf life, and improve quality, sustainability and consumer acceptability of food products. These alternative processing approaches include thermal and non-thermal methods such as electromagnetic heating, ultra-high pressure, light-based treatments, plasma and combined processing. Alternative processing techniques are also needed to reduce thermal abuse on foods, lower carbon footprint and substantially reduce water volume used in heat transfer processes. However, performance capabilities of available processing technologies differ widely in terms of the types of food that can be treated, microbial efficacy, desired and undesired effects, and their economic and environmental impact and regulatory status.
The objective of this talk is to provide science-based information to assist in evaluation of relative capabilities of commercially available alternative technologies and technologies-in-development to ensure safe and nutritious foods. Areas covered in the webinar: (1) review of alternative and emerging high-technological processing techniques for their potential use by the food industry and (2) discuss current regulatory status, technology assessment, commercialization challenges and future prospects.

3D food printing: a novel technology to customize food sensory properties
Wendy Wismer, CFS, Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

The sensory properties of a food (appearance, aroma, taste and texture) are key to its perceived quality and influence the decision to eat it. 3D Food Printing (3DFP), a novel food processing technique, can be used to customize a food product’s sensory properties. Early research on 3DFP focused on sourcing suitable food matrices for printing and the delivery of personalized nutrition. Optimization and customization of food sensory properties through 3DFP technology is a growing area of interest. The appearance attribute of 3DFP products has received the most attention and the intricate geometries of 3DFP foods are unique. 3DFP is emerging as a technology for customization of texture modified foods such as forming pureed foods for special diets. Taste is a key sensory attribute of food product acceptance. Taste properties of foods can be modified by printing foods in layers with varying concentrations of tastants and by depositing tastants in precise positions within a 3D printed food. This presentation will provide an overview of the enhancement of food sensory properties by 3DFP, with a focus on taste, the sensory attribute of food products most strongly linked to product liking in any food production system.

Food Structure and Nutrient Delivery

Session Chair
Andrew J. Gravelle, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, USA; and Kunal Kadiya, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Session Introduction

This session will focus on the use of lipids, proteins, and co‐products from new and sustainable sources to provide structure and functionality in food systems. The scope includes general structuring (gelation, emulsification, lipid structuring, etc.), texture modification, nutrient encapsulation and delivery, bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and lipid and protein oxidation.

Session Keynote

Particle Cohort Study (ParCS): a method for mechanistic investigation of the influence of microstructure on digestion
John Frostad, Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia, Canada; Duc Toan Do, Student, Massey University, New Zealand; Jaspreet Singh, Professor, Massey University, New Zealand; Indrawati Oey, Professor, Massey University, New Zealand; Harjinder Singh, Professor, Massey University, New Zealand; Rickey Yada, Professor and Dean, University of British Columbia, Canada

It is well-known that the microstructure of food materials can influence the bioaccessibility of the ingredients. For example, the low glycemic index of legumes is attributed to the microstructural containment of starch granules within the individual cotyledon cells. In this talk we present a technique in which a cohort of microscale food particles can be monitored individually as each of them are subjected to simulated conditions of cooking followed by gastric and intestinal digestion.

As this technique is both longitudinal (following the evolution through time) and cohort based (monitoring a cross-section of individual particles) it is denoted as a Particle Cohort Study or ParCS. The advantage is that detailed mechanistic hypotheses may be tested and – more importantly – quantified to assist in the development of predictive models. Further, only very small quantities of material are required and can reveal inter-particle variability that may be unavailable using traditional methods.

The technique is demonstrated in this talk by following isolated Navy Bean cells through cooking and digestion and quantifying the rate of starch digestion within individual cells. The digestion data are found to be well represented by a first-principles, mass transfer equation with a Michaelis-Menten reaction rate model.

Self-assembly and hydrogelation properties of egg white-derived peptides
Raliat Abioye, PhD Student, Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Xiaohong Sun, Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Pei Chun Queenie Hsu, Undergraduate Student, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Nico Huttman, MSc Student, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Caleb Aquah, Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Chibuike C. Udenigwe, Full Professor, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada

Functional foods are gaining traction as a source of peptides possessing hydrogelation properties. Analysis of peptides (n=429) in egg white protein hydrolysates resulted in the identification of six peptides: IFYCPIAIM, NIFYCPIAIM, VLVNAIVFKGL, YCPIAIMSA, MMYQIGLF, and VYSFSLASRL as prominent self-assembly candidates based on the prediction of their aggregation-prone segments. The objective of this study was to characterize the hydrogel formed via self-assembly of the peptides.

Thioflavin T (ThT) kinetics was used to assess the formation and stability of the peptide hydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was performed before and after a 24-hour incubation to evaluate changes in the hydrodynamic diameter and distribution of species present during hydrogelation. Rheological characterization of the six peptide hydrogels was also performed to evaluate shear thinning behaviour and strength of the hydrogel networks. Finally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to visualize the peptide hydrogel networks.

Of the six peptides studied, NIFYCPIAIM and MMYQIGLF showed promising self-assembly and hydrogelation properties. ThT kinetics indicated that NIFYCPIAIM possesses the strongest self-assembly property, which was confirmed by DLS as the largest average particle diameter after 24 hours. The remarkable difference in self-assembly and hydrogelation properties of NIFYCPIAIM, IFYCPIAIMSA and YCPIAIMSA, which share a common sequence YCPIAIM, indicate the importance of amino acid sequence in the formation and property of peptide hydrogels.

Identification of the egg white-derived peptides with hydrogelation properties shows a promising future for the repurposing of functional foods for other applications, such as drug delivery systems and tissue engineering, in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and biomedical sectors.

Particle-filled protein-starch composites and suspensions as models for exploring interactions in plant-based meat analogues
Stacie Dobson, PhD Student; and Alejandro Marangoni, PhD, FRSC, FAOCS, FIFT, FRSC (U.K.), Food Science, University of Guelph, Canada

Proteins and polysaccharides are essential macromolecules that are responsible for a variety of properties in foods. Their role in plant-based food systems has become of great interest as the products created are highly dependent on the ability of the ingredients to form structures and interact. Three rapid swelling waxy maize starches, including chemically modified, thermally inhibited, and granular cold water swelling starch, were combined with pea protein isolate to create a fundamental plant-based meat analogue composite. The rheological and textural properties of the composite demonstrated that the type of starch highly influenced the structure and interaction ability with the pea protein isolate. Thermally inhibited starch and pea protein isolate were able to act synergistically where 30%w/w protein addition actively filled the starch matrix and enhanced the composites, resilience, chewiness, and yield strength. The viscosity of 5%w/v protein-starch suspensions were then investigated to further understand the interactions occurring. The addition of pea protein significantly increased the viscosity, reaching a maximum between 20-25%w/w protein, suggesting a synergistic interaction. The modified and cold-water swelling starches could not interact to the same extent and the addition of protein decreased the viscosity. In the synergistic complex, interactions were determined to be predominantly electrostatic, with a smaller contribution from hydrogen bonding. The investigation was extended to additional commercial pea protein isolates to identify their functional properties where we determined that the secondary structure of the proteins highly influenced functionality. The commercial protein isolate with the greatest α-helix to β-sheet ratio displayed the highest water holding capacity, had the highest protein solubility, and increased solubility upon interacting with the thermally inhibited starch. Greater protein-water interactions and a greater α-helix to β-sheet ratio may be an indicator for interaction ability, which could be used in the design of plant-based meat analogues with optimal mechanical properties.

Utilization of mildly fractionated pea proteins for the development of heat-stable canola oil beverage emulsions
Neksha Devaki, Master's Student; and Supratim Ghosh, Associate Professor, Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Pulse proteins have shown considerable promises for its utilization as food emulsifiers in the development of beverage emulsions. Present research focuses on separating soluble proteins from air classified pea protein concentrates (PPC) by centrifuging a 7 wt% PPC dispersion at 4000×g for 1 minute. It was hypothesized that mild fractionation would preserve the functionality of the proteins and stabilize the emulsions at a lower concentration compared to the original PPC. After centrifugal separation, soluble protein solution from the supernatant (containing 2.5% proteins) was directly used to develop 5 wt% canola oil-in-water emulsions. Various environmental stresses, including addition of salt (0.1 and 0.5 M), change in pH (2 and 7) and heat treatment were used to investigate emulsion stability upon storage by measuring droplet size, visual observation, viscosity and photocentrifuge transmission profiles. The initial average droplet sizes of pH 7 emulsions were around 300 nm at various salt concentrations, which did not change significantly after 1 week. The pH 2 emulsions initially showed extensive aggregation, with the average droplet sizes ranging from 3.0 to 8.8 µm with an increase in salt concentration, which however, decreased significantly to below 1 µm after 1 week, due to breakdown of droplet aggregates over time. Upon heating the emulsions to 90 °C, extensive droplet aggregation was observed in all emulsions leading to emulsion destabilization. To overcome this problem, pea protein was heat denatured before hot emulsification, resulting in much improved stability against heat-induced emulsion destabilization at both the pH values. Based on different emulsion characterization tests, it was found that 0.5 M salt-added heated-protein emulsion at pH 7 had the highest stability with the lowest average droplet size (below 300 nm). Heat treated soluble pea proteins accompanied with NaCl could serve as a potential high-value emulsifiers for the beverage industry.

Effect of crosslinking agent on the stability of lipid-protein (LP) based nano-emulsion (nE) systems
Anujit Ghosal, Postdoctoral Fellow; and Nandika Bandara, Assistant Professor and Canada Research Chair in Food Proteins and Bioproducts, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Canada

The delivery agents which can bypass biological barriers are most suitable for the delivery of functional nutraceuticals. In this regard, the utilization of lipids, proteins, or their conjugates has been constantly explored. The main objective of this study is to optimize the concentration of the cross-linkers, study the effect on zeta potential, particle size, and drug release mechanism in layered LP nEs. Here we present successful LP-based nE systems with lipidic subunit (Oleic Acid) at the core and protein (Gelatin) as a surface template using homogenization and sonication techniques. The ratio of Tween 80 and cosurfactant (ethanol and isopropyl alcohol) greatly influence the size and stability of the nEs in the long run. The negative zeta potential (-35 to -25 eV) and stable particles size (<20% variation in 20 days) revealed their high stability in aqueous dispersion. However, to further enhance the stability of the nEs, crosslinking agents like glutaraldehyde and citric acid have been explored. The variation in lipid content can be utilized to modulate the particle size ranging from 50 nm to 400 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning-TEM (STEM) analysis confirmed the spherical layered structure, whereas differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) help to verify model drug (Resveratrol) encapsulation. Such biodegradable delivery systems could be further explored for medicinal, agricultural, food, cosmetics, and paints industries.

Comparison between pulse and oilseed protein-based oleogelation for baking application
Supratim Ghosh, Associate Professor, Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; Yan Ran Tang, Research Assistant; and Manisha Sharma, Research Assistant, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

Proteins extracted from plants can be used for structure formation in liquid oil, creating oleogels via indirect approach. In this work, we compared pulse proteins from faba bean and oilseed proteins from canola in the development of emulsion-templated oleogels. Canola protein isolate (CPI) was salt-extracted from cold-pressed meal, while the faba bean proteins isolate (FBPI) was extracted via isoelectric precipitation method. Concentrated oil-in-water emulsions containing 50 wt% canola oil were prepared with 4 wt% protein dispersions using a high-pressure homogenizer. Both emulsions were stable with similar average droplet diameters (10 um) and showed weak gel-like behaviour. To improve interfacial strength of the proteins, emulsions were heated above their respective protein denaturation temperature. Oleogels were obtained by vacuum drying both the heated (HE) and unheated (UE) emulsions at 60 ºC followed by shearing using a hand blender. Heat treatment prior to drying led to a higher oil binding capacity, and better rheology of the oleogels. Overall, the heat-treated CPI-based oleogels were more stable with significantly lower oil loss and higher gel strength than the heat-treated FBPI-based oleogels, indicating CPI’s higher heat denaturation and subsequent aggregation upon cooling compared to FBPI. The stability of the oleogels, however, did not affect the specifics gravity of the cake batters where no significant difference was observed among the oleogels and a control batter made with conventional shortening. Specific volume of the HE CPI emulsion-based oleogel cake was the highest followed by HE FBPI emulsion-based oleogel, both of which were higher than shortening-based cake. In texture analysis, both FBPI and CPI oleogel cakes were softer than the conventional shortening-based cakes. CPI-oleogel-based cakes were darker due to the dark color of the canola proteins. These findings may extend the application of oilseed proteins in viscoelastic foods and a replacer of conventional highly saturated fat in cake baking.

Student ePitch Competition I

Hongbing Fan, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Session Introduction
This session is dedicated to student research. Participants will present a 5‐minute pitch for their research. Prizes will be awarded for the best pitches—be sure to vote!

In-vitro and in-silico assessments of the deactivation of IgE epitopes in potato tuber proteins by digestive proteases
Amanda Clairoux, Research Assistant; Oluwaseyi Ogunrinola, Research Assistant; Chi Dang, Research Assistant; Jordyn Mackey Research Assistant; and Chibuike Udenigwe, Full Professor, University Chair in Food Properties and Nutrient Bioavailability, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada

During food processing, commercial proteases can hydrolyze allergenic epitopes to reduce immune reactivity. Epitope deactivation is also possible during dietary protein digestion by pepsin and pancreatic proteases in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the effect of digestive proteases on B-cell epitopes of potato proteins (Sol t 1, Sol t 2, Sol t 3 and Sol t 4) was investigated in-vitro and in-silico. Theoretical hydrolysis of the epitopes using a combination of pepsin (gastric phase) and trypsin+chymotrypsin (intestinal phase) produced potential immune-reactivity reduction, represented as 61-100% degree of hydrolysis (DH) across all epitopes. In-vitro, shotgun peptidomic analysis revealed that these epitopes were more resistant to cleavage after hydrolysis by pepsin+pancreatin (16-60% DH). As expected, the pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysate had higher DH of epitopes than the pepsin hydrolysate. The epitopes contained various amounts of α-helices, β-strands and random coils, but there was no significant correlation between the theoretical or in-vitro DH and the secondary structure at the enzyme cleavage sites of the epitopes. Nonetheless, most of the miscleavage sites were found in regions with α-helices or random coils. This alludes that these secondary structures restricted access of the proteases to the epitopes, thus lowering the hydrolytic effectiveness of the proteases. Other bioinformatics tools revealed that most of the cleavages found in the hydrolysates in-vitro were caused by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, thus signifying the absence of unspecific hydrolysis. Finally, the theoretical hydrolysis of the potato epitopes formed a variety of bioactive peptides, but none of these peptides were found in the hydrolysates in-vitro. Instead, the pepsin and pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates respectively contained 12 and 13 epitope-derived potential bioactive peptides, based on PeptideRanker predictions. Taken together, digestion of potato tuber proteins hydrolyzed the immune-reactive sequences, but physical processing may be needed to alter the epitope secondary structure and achieve complete deactivation.

Structure and formation of dairy yogurts based on different casein: whey protein ratios
Delnavaz Yazdansepas, MSc Student, Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Canada

Research on dietary proteins has shown that they are precursors of a variety of bioactive peptides that can improve human health and prevent chronic diseases by exerting positive effects on the body’s digestive, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems. As a preliminary step to investigate the role of dairy peptides on metabolic syndrome, the aim of this study was to formulate fat-free, high protein content model yogurts with different ratios of casein and whey proteins. The second aim was to subject the whey proteins to a heat treatment prior to yoghurt preparation. Model yogurts were formulated with 10 wt% protein at 1:1 and 4:1 casein: whey protein ratios using micellar casein and whey protein isolate (WPI). Other than the protein, the starting dairy blends consisted of 75 wt% water, 14 wt% lactose, and 1 wt% bacterial culture. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that WPI was susceptible to denaturation at 60 ˚C and above. As a result, the 1:1 hydrated dairy solutions were heated at 70, 75, or 80 ˚C for 27, 16, and 5 minutes, respectively. The samples were then inoculated and incubated at 42 ˚C. The firmness and microstructure of the resulting yoghurts were analyzed with oscillatory rheology and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The thermal treatment at 80 ˚C resulted in a yogurt with a firmer gel structure and a smaller pore size, along with a shortened fermentation time. This study serves as the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo trials to investigate the effects of yoghurts with different protein compositions on possible mitigation of metabolic syndrome.

Optimizing deep eutectic solvent (DES)-based protein extraction from fava bean using response surface methodology
Anuruddika Malkanthi Hetti Hewage, Student (MSc) Reading RhD, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba-Winnipeg, MB, Canada; and Nandika Bandara, Assistant Professor & Canada Research Chair in Food Proteins and Bioproducts, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Fava bean (FB) is a legume crop containing 20-40% protein that can fulfill the protein requirement in the human diet. Processing FB into protein ingredients using novel green extraction technology is a promising method to increase its utilization in food applications. DES-based extraction has gained increased interest as an eco-friendly solvent system owing to its biodegradability, minimum toxicity, easy preparation, solvent reusability, and low cost.

The objective of this research is to optimize the protein extraction yield from FB using a DES system containing glycerol and choline chloride and compare it with the conventional alkaline method. We hypothesize that DES can increase the protein purity and yield compared to alkaline extraction.

A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the protein yield, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the results. The conventional alkaline (pH- 9.5, solid to liquid ration; 1:10, at 23°C for 2hrs) were performed based on the previously established methods.

The proximate composition of FB consisted of 13.31±0.02% moisture, 3.18±0.03% ash, 1.73±0.45% crude fat, 54.40±0.77% total starch, and 30.68 ± 0.12% protein. The obtained RSM model was significantly fitted with the extraction yield of FB (R2-98.54%, p<0.05). With the optimum predicted conditions, extraction yield, purity, and recovery rate of the DES system were reported as 65.42±6.53%, 92.59±2.11%, and 23.15±2.31% compared to the values of 60.76±1.16%, 92.71±1.33%, and 21.74±0.19% in alkaline extracted isolates, respectively. The results of this RSM study show that higher protein content was recovered with DES compared with alkaline extraction. These results show that the potential use of this DES system to extract FB protein will likely stimulate food industries to formulate novel food products.

Peptides with ACE inhibitory activity is a not common feature of ACE2 activating peptides
Zihan Wang, Grad Research Assistant Fellowship; Hongbing Fan, Postdoctoral fellow; and Jianping Wu, Professor, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has attracted a great deal of public and scientific attention due to its role as the entry receptor of the COVID-19 infection, even though its main biological function is to regulate the cardiovascular system. Identified in 2000, ACE2 uses angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, as its main substrate to form angiotensin (1-7), a vasodilatory peptide with beneficial effects. On the other hand, ACE is responsible for the formation of angiotensin II and is the key target for developing first-line antihypertensive agents. Given the similarities in structure and their interconnected roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the objective of this study was to investigate whether peptides with ACE inhibitory activity is a common feature of ACE2 activating (ACE2a) peptides. Initially, twenty ACEi peptides were selected from established database through molecular docking as the potential ACE2u/a peptides, which were subjected to in vitro screening tests including qPCR, western blot and kinetic assay. IQY, IKW, MAW and other 5 peptides, but not MRW and RIY, significantly increased ACE2 mRNA and protein expression. In kinetic assay, Vmax and Km of each peptide were calculated (Vmax/Km: Untreated (101.6/28.85) vs RIY (66.57/43.97) vs MRW (75.69/56.28) vs IKW (113.1/26.72)). Finally, five ACE2-regulatory peptides (IKW, IQY, MAW, MRW and RIY) were orally administered to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at the dose of 15 mg/kg body weight for 7 days. IKW, IQY and RIY significantly reduced the blood pressure without affecting the heart rate. Associated with this reduction was the elevated circulating level of angiotensin (1-7) and ACE2 activity after the treatment with RIY, IKW, and IQY. Since angiotensin (1-7) is mainly produced by ACE2 from angiotensin II, these results these peptides are ACE2 activators. In summary, our study showed that peptides with ACE inhibitory activity are not an essential feature for ACE2 activating peptides.

Judge Deliberation and Winner Announcement

Friday Closing Remarks

Saturday, February 5:

Saturday, February 5: Welcome and Keynote Address

Welcome and Opening Remarks

Keynote Address

The next era in food innovation
Dana, McCauley, Chief Experience Officer, Canadian Food Innovation Network, Canada

Join Dana McCauley, Chief Experience Officer of the recently formed Canadian Food Innovation Network (CFIN) to learn about the new supports and programs Canada has created to revolutionize networking and collaboration that will stimulate innovation in the food sector. Her presentation includes insights CFIN has gathered about the food tech and consumer trends that will drive innovation in food in the next 5 to 10 years.

Dana McCauley is a value proposition driven innovator who has successfully launched many food products and programs in collaboration with domestic and international food companies and entrepreneurs.

​Beyond her corporate experiences in marketing, product development and creative services, Dana brings not-for-profit and academic expertise to her role. She was the founding Executive Director for Food Starter, a Toronto based food business incubator and accelerator that was recognized with an Ontario Premier’s Award for Agri-Food Innovation Excellence. As Director of New Venture Creation at the University of Guelph, Dana enabled agri-food innovators to transform their inventions into innovations that grow the economy and enhance Canada's international reputation.

​Dana has been a food media personality and keynote speaker. She is the President of the SIAL Canada Innovation Award jury. In 2017, Dana was recognized by WXN as one of Canada’s Most Powerful Women in the Trailblazers and Trendsetters category.

Biomaterials Processing and Value-added Applications

Session Chair
Aman Ullah, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada

Session Introduction

This session focuses on recent advances in oilseed, algal oil and marine oil processing and value‐ added applications for lipids and co‐products including protein, and polysaccharides. Topics will include fermentation, ingredient and platform chemical development, and bio‐based material development for renewable and sustainable polymers.

Session Keynote

Sustainable production and characterization of lasiodiplodan carbohydrate polymer by Lasiodiplodia theobromae from sugarcane bagasse cellulosic sugars
Anuj Chandel, Professor; Jesus Ascencio, PhD candidate; and Silvio da Silva, Full Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena, University of São Paulo, Brazil

The present work shows the results on fermentative production of LAS by the filamentous fungus L. theobromae CCT 3966 under submerged fermentation using sugarcane bagasse cellulosic hydrolyzate as a renewable carbon source supplemented with soybean and rice bran extracts as nitrogen sources. Lignocellulosic sugars are second generation renewable carbon molecules which can be converted into biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an inevitable step to increase the accessibility of cellulolytic enzymes to hydrolyse the hemicellulose and cellulose to obtain fermentable sugars. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute nitric acid and sodium hydroxide sequentially to remove hemicellulose and lignin respectively. The pretreated bagasse was then submitted to the enzymatic hydrolysis (10% of total solids) by Cellic Ctec 2, Novozyme (Curitiba, Brazil). The hydrolysis showed the glucose yield of 72.05% (67.9 g/L of glucose). This sugars solution was supplemented with soybean and rice bran extracts as organic nitrogen source for L. theobromae for lasiodiplodan (LAS) production. Maximum LAS production (22 g/L) and cell biomass (14.03 g/L) was recorded using rice bran hydrolysate as nitrogen source. Bio-physical properties of LAS such as purity, solubility, viscosity and molecular mass were characterized. Additionally, structural analysis of LAS by SEM, XRD, FTIR and DSC techniques were studied. The results showed high purity, low solubility, pseudoplastic behavior of LAS, substantially amorphous with moderate thermal stability and similar degradation temperature and is composed of glucose units.

Lipid-based smart nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery
Huiqi Wang; and Aman Ullah, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada

Polymeric micelle forming from self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules is one of the most potent drug delivery systems. Fatty acids, naturally occurring hydrophobic components, are considered excellent candidates as hydrophobic segments for fabrication of micelles. The aim of this study was to prepare “smart” block copolymer nanomicelles composed of renewable fatty acid based polymer and thermo-responsive polymer for targeted drug delivery. The block copolymer was synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization under microwave irradiations. The saturated/unsaturated fatty acid based methacrylate monomer (SAMA/MAEO) was firstly polymerized and exploited as chain transfer agents (macro-CTA) to copolymerize with N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) obtaining the diblock copolymer PSAMA/PMAEO-b-PNIPAAm. The polymerization was carried out in a controlled fashion and the average molecular weight and polydispersity were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The structure of copolymer was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR. The block copolymers were allowed to self-assemble in aqueous media and their micellization, thermoresponse, drug encapsulation and release behavior was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results indicated these amphiphlic block copolymers with variable block lengths could spontaneously assemble into spherical micelles in the size range of 27-31 nm. Their critical micelle concentration (CMC) values ranged from 0.0036 to 0.0119 mg/ml, which decreased with increasing fatty acid ratios into the copolymer chain. A model drug was successfully encapsulated into these micelles and it was found that the drug release showed obvious temperature-triggered response. At 37 oC, a sustained drug release rate was observed with complete release of drug within 72 hrs. These results suggest that these block copolymers can be potentially utilized for targeted delivery of drugs. These findings also suggest the opportunity to further explore the utilization of renewable materials as replacements of synthetic materials for intelligent delivery systems.

Hybrid bio-nanocomposite films reinforced by cellulose nanocrytals/nanokeratin for food packaging applications
Beenish Khanzada, Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada; Bushra Mirza, Professor, Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan; and Aman Ullah, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada

There is an increased demand from the food industry regarding eco-friendly bio-based sustainable packaging material to overcome the global environmental crises due to plastic packaging. In this contribution, hybrid bio-nanocomposite films were successfully synthesized using chitosan as matrix, glycerol as plasticizer, nanokeratin (NK) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a nano-reinforcement and different plant extracts [Cinnamomum tamala (Ex-1), Amomum subulatum (Ex-2) and Mentha piperita (Ex-3)] as antimicrobial/antioxidant additives. Varying concentrations of CNC, NK and extracts were dispersed in the chitosan matrix. The effect of nano-reinforcement and extract addition were evaluated on thermo-mechanical, physical and barrier properties of bio-nanocomposite films.

The optimum reinforcement of chitosan with CNC, NK and extracts (Ex-1, 2 and 3) significantly increased tensile strength (23%, 16% and 26% respectively) of the films. The maximum tensile strength was achieved by the addition of Ex-3 with CNC reinforcement (81MPa). Further, the water vapor permeability was significantly decreased (>50%) by the addition of Ex-3 with CNC and NK as compared to control films. Film color was mainly influenced by the presence and type of extract. The films containing Ex-1 reinforced with both CNC and NK displayed highest opacity and UV Visible barrier properties compared to control. The thermal analysis showed that films containing Ex-3 reinforced by CNC and NK has the highest thermal stability.

The results suggest good intercalation and/or exfoliation of chitosan biopolymers and extracts into CNC and NK interlayers leading to improved thermo-mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films and this reinforcement approach can be further extended to other biopolymers to achieve high quality food packaging films.

Evaluation of Bcl-2 inhibition and apoptosis-related microRNAs in the inflammatory process of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, bioinformatics analysis
Saber Samadiafshar, Master’s Student of Biochemistry and Ali Nikakhtar, Master’s Student of Biochemistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Sahel Samadiafshar, Bachelor of Anesthesiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Najmeh Mohammadzade, Bachelor of Nursing, Amol Imam Hospital, Iran; Nadia Garmsiri, Master’s Student of Biochemistry; and Farnia Garmsiri, Master’s Student of Biochemistry, Payame Noor University Tehran Shargh, Iran

Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Pancreatic cancer is often asymptomatic in the early stages and makes early diagnosis difficult. Pancreatic cancer is expected to overtake colorectal cancer as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Bcl-2 and related cytoplasmic proteins are key regulators of apoptosis, the cell suicide program critical for development, tissue homeostasis, and protection against pathogens. Those most similar to Bcl-2 promote cell survival by inhibiting adapters needed for activation of the proteases (caspases) that dismantle the cell. Inflammation is strictly interconnected to anti-inflammatory mechanisms to maintain tissue homeostasis. The disruption of immune homeostasis can lead to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic diseases and cancer.

In this study, raw data associated to Bcl-2 , miRNAs were extracted from databases TCGA, miRDB, String and GEPIA. It was then analyzed and evaluated with bioinformatics techniques and software such as cytoscape, MCODE and SPSS26.

BCL-2 is a product of the anti-apoptotic gene, which is less pronounced in normal people with PAAD. This deficiency increases the severity of inflammation and pancreatic cancer. According to this study, as the disease grade increases, the expression level of BCL-2 decreases. The P(-value) of patient survival in the graph (Bcl-2)is equal to0.24. The amount of 214 microRNAs associated with BCL-2 has been identified and shown graphically.

Bioinformatics analysis shows that the importance of inflammation and apoptosis is clearly demonstrated. By targeted control of biomarkers, the severity of inflammation can be informed in a timely manner, the patient can be treated properly, and pancreatic and inflammatory damage can be prevented. It greatly helps the patient, family and medical staff, increases the success rate of the fight for survival in pancreatic cancer inflammation and secondary injuries.

Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from eggshell waste and their application as nanoadditives
Punita Upadhyay; and Aman Ullah, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada

Due to the excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HANPS) are widely used in biomedical and other fields. In the present work, HANPS were successfully synthesized from eggshell waste using the microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The synthesized HANPS were characterized for functionality, shape, size, crystallinity, phase purity, and thermal stability using Fourier transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The SEM and TEM analysis revealed a uniform hexagonal phase nanorod product with an average size of 70-80 nm and XRD indicated the pure crystalline structure of nanoparticles. The synthesized HANPS were used to reinforce chitosan biopolymer to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of HANPs at different concentrations of 1, 3, 5 and 10 wt % were studied in bionanocomposite. The effect of the addition of HANPs, their impact, and disposition on the final film properties was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TGA, and mechanical (tensile) testing. Results indicated improved thermal stability and shift in glass transition and melting temperature for nano-reinforced bionanocomposites. Tensile strength of the chitosan-hydroxyapatite (CH-HA) bionanocomposites was increased with increasing concentration 1, 3, and 5% but with higher percentages (10%), the strength was slightly decreased. Thermal decomposition analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the bionanocomposites has improved compared to neat chitosan films. The FTIR analysis indicated the nanofillers interactions with the chitosan matrix via hydrogen bonding led to improvements in the properties of the bionanocomposites with a great potential to be used in biomedical and food packaging applications.

Lipid Interactions with the Food Matrix

Session Chair
Apollinaire Tsopmo , PhD Professor, Food Science Program, Chemistry, Carleton University, Canada; and Amanda Wright, PhD., Associate Professor, University of Guelph, Canada

Session Introduction

Lipid structure, textures, functionality, bioactivity and bioavailability can be modified during food processing as the result of lipid interactions with other food components, metals, proteins, and secondary metabolites. This session will focus on research and innovations related to the interactions of lipids with other food components.

Session Keynote Address

Effect of inulin to encapsulate of ultrasonic-induced O/W/O double emulsion system and inhibit alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase helping dysphagia
Farah Hosseinian, Professor, Chemistry, Carleton University, Canada

The ability to eat and drink is essential for life. Dysphagia is a disability disorder, which is characterized by difficulty swallowing, aspiration, and choking. Thus, diet for elders with dysphasia needs to be re-designed in order to improve the overall health and wellbeing. Currently, there is limited studies to develop a functional allergy-free food product for elders with oral disorder. The objectives of this this study was 1) to develop and optimize ultrasonic emulsion gels (double emulsions) by using inulin as delivery ingredient and 2) to assess inhibitory effect of the above emulsion gels on the activity of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Results showed that addition of Psyllium husk (up to 3 %) greatly prevent phase separation and addition of inulin (up to 20%) could mimic oil to form O/W/O emulsion, which further improving emulsion gel stability by reducing droplet size and increasing encapsulation of droplet. In addition, psyllium husk emulsion showed inhibitory effect on the activity of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, with dose dependent effect.

The second phase of this study involved modeling puree-based food products with the optimized inulin-psyllium husk emulsion. From there, the functional effects of psyllium husk emulsion gel in meat puree was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), cooking loss, alpha-amylase test, alpha-glucosidase test, and xanthine oxidase test. Results showed that incorporation of inulin (20%)-psyllium husk (3%) emulsion gel into puree samples homogenized the puree system and hence improving its physicochemical properties. All puree samples showed inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase after incorporation into husk-20% inulin emulsion gel and revealed a dose-dependent effect. This study suggests inulin has potential of fat replacement in O/W/O system with alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitory activity indicating its potential action for helping Dysphagia.

Mechanical reinforcement of emulsion-filled protein gels is dictated by network connectivity and heterogeneous stress translation: gelatin as a case study
Andrew Gravelle, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, USA; and Alejandro Marangoni, PhD, Professor, Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Canada

Many food matrices can be viewed as emulsion-filled protein hydrogel composites, including various cheeses, comminuted meats, and yogurts. The mechanical, textural, and sensory properties of these systems are known to be strongly impacted by both the fat content and filler/matrix interactions. However, the effect of network structure and its associated impact on stress translation through the gel matrix is generally neglected. For this reason, established particle reinforcement models widely used to describe the mechanical behaviour of such systems generally diverge from experimental observations. This work explores the effect of incorporating both oil- and fat-based whey protein-stabilized emulsion droplets in gelatin gels exhibiting a highly heterogeneous network structure. Preparing gels below the isoelectric point of whey proteins induced a highly aggregated gel network characterized by protein-dense, emulsion droplet-rich domains. Increasing filler content produced a substantial increase in gel strength, indicative of strong filler/matrix interactions. The extent of reinforcement was more pronounced for fat-filled gels, but was also negatively correlated with gelatin concentration. We demonstrate that the observed reinforcement could be well described by a power law scaling relation. This behaviour could be attributed to heterogeneous stress translation through the gel network, where increasing filler content introduced new load-bearing links in the gel network. By contrast, increasing gelatin concentration also increased network connectivity, thus reducing the potential to form new links through the addition of filler particles. This view provides an intuitive explanation for the observed trends in scaling behaviour. We have recently extended the fractal scaling model of protein gels to accommodate such heterogeneous stress translation, which will be briefly described. This work provides a mechanistic rationale for the mechanical reinforcement widely observed in emulsion-filled protein gels. Stress translation is thus a particularly important consideration when processing conditions and ingredient interactions may impact network structure.

Effects of potato processing and frying on oxidized fatty acid concentrations
Zhichao Zhang, Postdoctoral Scholar; and Shiva Emami, PhD student, Food Science, UC Davis, USA; Marie Hennebelle, Assistant Professor, Food Chemistry, Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands; Ameer Taha, Associate Professor, Food Science, UC Davis, USA

The large consumption of French fries in western diet raises important health concern as studies have shown oxidized fatty acid formed during deep frying in French fries to be bioavailable and bioactive in chronic diseases. This study first investigated the effect of repeated frying cycle on oxidized fatty acids (oxylipins) accumulation in ready-to-eat French fries. Upon finding that repeated frying only partially affects the oxylipin formation in repeated frying from frozen French fries, another study mimicking the frozen French fries manufacturing was conducted. Results indicate that raw potato processing steps have significant impact on oxylipin formation. Blanching might not inactivate lipoxygenase enzymes. Par frying significantly decreased oxylipins in potatoes and deep frying did not largely increase oxylipin concentrations in ready-to-eat French fries. Frozen French fries were saturated with oxylipins during its manufacturing and afterward repeated frying only significantly affected oil oxidation not French fries oxidation.

Plant-based ultra-processed burgers versus beef burgers – how does food structure alter lipid digestion?
Zhitong Zhou, PhD Candidate, MSc, BSc; Arianna Sultani, BSc; Pedram Nasr, MSc, Douglas Goff, Professor; Maria Corradini, Professor; and Michael Rogers, Professor, Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Canada

Plant-based meat, such as the beyond burger, are ultra-processed foods (UPFs), mimicking traditional meat products' nutritional composition and organoleptic characteristics. Incorporating these products into our diet created numerous knowledge gaps around healthfulness, one of which is understanding the in-vivo lipemic responses after consuming plant-based ultra-processed burgers compared to a typical fast-food beef patty. Gas chromatography and imaging tools (i.e., optical, confocal) coupled with a robotic digestive system, the TNO Intestinal Model-1 (TIM-1), determined fatty acid bioaccessibility while monitoring structural disintegration during in-vitro digestion. The muscle entraps lipids as interfascicular adipocytes within the muscle fiber bundles or perimysium in traditional meat. Conversely, the ultra-processed "beyond burger" is recombined ingredients with minimal cell integrity. Both the Beyond and beef burgers have similar macronutrient profiles yet distinctly different food structures, resulting in a significantly higher fatty acid bioaccessibility for beyond burgers. Beyond burgers' fatty acid release profile follows a sigmoidal pattern while beef presents a linear trend. Based on these findings, the food matrix structure greatly alters lipids' digestion profile, altering the lipidic response.

Oxylipins derived from DHA are lower in the hearts of rats fed the food contaminant 2-MCPD
Lucien Cayer, Graduate Student, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; Jennifer Roberts, Senior Laboratory Technician, Health Product and Food Branch – Regulatory Toxicology Research Division, Health Canada, Canada; Jayadev Raju, Research Scientist, Health Canada, Canada; and Harold Aukema, Professor, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Oxylipins are oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can mediate cellular processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, and cell proliferation; and are emerging as potential biomarkers of toxicity. Chloropropanols have been identified as process-induced food contaminants which occur as by-products of the manufacturing of refined food oils and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. The most well-studied of the chloropropanol isomers, 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol, is a known rodent and possible human carcinogen that targets the kidney and testis. However, the 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) isomer has been less studied but is emerging as another health hazard, so there is an impetus to fill a regulatory data gap. Our recent dietary toxicity studies demonstrate that 2-MCPD adversely impacts the heart as the major target organ, through an oxidative stress-related molecular mechanism. Thus we aimed to investigated whether oxylipins in the heart tissue contributes to the toxicological mechanism(s) elicited by 2-MCPD exposure. Oxylipin analyses using HPLC-MS/MS was conducted in the hearts, and additionally in skeletal muscles, of male and female F344 rats exposed to control and 2-MCPD (40 mg/kg BW) AIN-93G formulated diets for 90-days. By comparison to the control, 5 of the 6 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived oxylipins were significantly lower in the 2-MCPD-treated hearts. In contrast, there were no alterations in oxylipins between control and 2-MCPD-treated skeletal muscle. The DHA derived oxylipins are considered anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective, thus these findings of lower levels in the 2-MCPD-treated hearts suggests an inability to resolve inflammation and thus induce cardiotoxicity supporting the pathology data. This study provides a detailed profiling of oxylipins (in heart and skeletal muscle) and bolsters their use as biomarkers of 2-MCPD and potentially other chemical exposures.

Impact of oil and protein-polysaccharide complex selection on bioaccessibility of iron delivered by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions
Shima Saffarionpour, Postdoctoral Fellow; and Levente L. Diosady, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada

Recently emulsions fabricated from organic and aqueous phases have emerged as vehicles for delivery of hydrophilic or lipophilic compounds. For designing stable emulsion systems, the selection of the oil plays a key role in the formation and stability of oil droplets carrying encapsulates within their structure. Response of the emulsifier to environmental factors, such as pH and the nature of the oil itself are the determinant factors in achieving high bioaccessibility of the oil and the encapsulated bioactive. This study explored the influence of the selected oil and interaction of the protein-polysaccharide complex as an emulsifier with the oil-water interface on release and bioaccessibility of iron encapsulated in water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions. To investigate the influence of the selected oils on their digestion and bioaccessibility of the encapsulated iron, the functionality of two medium-chain triglycerides containing oils, coconut and palm oil were compared. Coconut oil resulted in lower gastric bioaccessibility of iron than palm oil due to its higher degree of saturation requiring a longer time for complete digestion. Its higher viscosity preserved the emulsion structure and hindered iron diffusion to the external aqueous phase. The complexation of the protein with the polysaccharide hindered its aggregation under acidic conditions and stabilized the oil interface. This study showed that the choice of oil and its interaction with the protein-polysaccharide complex and iron synergistically influence iron diffusion, release, and bioaccessibility.

Proteins and Bioresources

Session Chair
Nandika Bandara, PhD, CFS, Assistant Professor and Canada Research Chair in Food Proteins and Bioproducts, Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; and Xiaohong Sun, NSERC Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Nutrition Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada

2:00-2:05 p.m. CST (Chicago, USA; UTC-06)
Session Introduction

This session focuses on recent advances in sustainable protein production, novel protein processing technologies, alternate proteins, co‐product proteins from oilseed industry, and novel applications of protein in health, bioactive peptides, and nutritional products.

Session Keynote Address

Canola protein as a source of bioactive peptides
Jianping Wu, Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Canola is a major contributor to Canada's agri-food industry, accounting for an annual economic contribution of > $10 billion. The canola producers benefit mainly from the oil component, while the residual meal after oil extraction is limited to animal feed and fertilizer uses, generating negligible value to the industry. Canola meal contains 35-40% protein with well-balanced essential amino acids, but the use of canola protein as a food ingredient has been limited, due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors and bitter-tasting secondary plant constitutes as well as a lack of historic use of canola protein in human diet. Canola protein is also viewed a valuable source of bioactive peptides. Peptides with antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic activities have been characterized from major canola proteins. This presentation aims to discuss recent progress on preparing, identifying, efficacy and mechanistic studies of bioactive peptides from canola, and the challenges of commercializing the canola peptides.

Processing of edible insects for production of bioactive peptides and functional biomaterials: opportunities and challenges
Chibuike Udenigwe, Professor and University Research Chair, University of Ottawa, Canada

Edible insects are at the forefront of top candidates explored as alternative sources of proteins. Several edible insect species contain high contents of proteins and essential amino acids. In addition, edible insect proteins have shown strong potential as precursors of bioactive peptides for functional food purposes. However, much of this potential is yet to be applied in product development partly due to the complex matrix and challenges in downstream processing of edible insects.

To address this issue, we investigated the matrix factors that influence the application of Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) proteins. For instance, in silico analysis of the physicochemical properties and biological functions of mealworm protein database showed that structural proteins were the best precursors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibiting peptides compared to other protein types. Given the established structure-activity relationship for inhibitors of this enzyme, the result was due to the high hydropathicity of structural (cuticular) proteins, which is associated with their biological function as external protective barriers. This finding guided the subsequent structure-informed wet-lab processing of yellow mealworm leading to the isolation of cuticular proteins, and enzymatic release and fractionation of the bioactive peptides. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that the relatively hydrophilic non-cuticular proteins, with higher water-solubility and stronger negative charge, interacted strongly with chitosan, thus facilitating the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes that enhanced the in vitro bioaccessibility of water-insoluble curcumin under simulated oral, gastric, and small intestinal digestive conditions.

These studies showed that compartmentalization of proteins in edible insects is a critical factor in determining their downstream processing and potential as precursors of bioactive peptides or biomaterials. This work is relevant in advancing research on alternative proteins and structure-informed processing of proteins for specific applications.

Proteomics methods to determine the celiac allergenicity of different wheat species
Maneka Malalgoda, Assistant Professor, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; Senay Simsek, Department Head and Professor, Purdue University, USA

Wheat is among the most widely consumed grains worldwide. One of the key techno-functional aspects of wheat is its visco-elastic properties. Gluten forming proteins, composed of glutenin and gliadin proteins, are key to these properties, where glutenin proteins provide elasticity and gliadins impart viscosity. Nevertheless, gluten forming proteins have been implicated as a causative agent in celiac disease (CD), currently affecting nearly 1% of the global population. In addition to wheat, barley and rye also trigger CD. Specific peptide sequences, known as celiac epitopes, are produced as a result of incomplete digestion, and trigger the cascade of immune reactions associated with CD in people with the disease. Currently, currently immunochemical assays, such as ELISA, are used for the analysis of celiac epitopes. However, one of the drawbacks of such assays is the difficulty of analyzing multiple epitopes simultaneously. In this study, proteomics-based methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of celiac epitopes were developed, which facilitate the study of celiac epitopes in different hexaploid wheat cultivars and ancient grains with increased accuracy. Discovery mode/ untargeted approaches were used for the detection of epitopes, whereas targeted analyses with isotopically labeled peptides were developed for the analysis of specific epitopes. The results show that LC-MS/MS is a robust method that can be used for the targeted quantitative analysis of epitopes in a wide range of wheat species.

Dual-functional peptides from defatted wheat germ proteins: emulsifying property and anti-adhesive activity against Helicobacter pylori
Xiaohong Sun, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Shengnan Li, Master’s Student, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Qiqihar University, China; Ogadimma D. Okagu, PhD Student, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Hao Wang, Master’s Student, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Qiqihar University, China; Chibuike C. Udenigwe, School of Nutrition Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada

Peptides (n = 267) were identified recently in wheat germ protein hydrolysates with anti-adhesive activity against H. pylori. In addition to biological activities, peptides also exert functional properties on food product formulations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify peptides with both emulsifying property and anti-adhesive activity against H. pylori.

The emulsifying property of the peptides was predicted by calculating the amphiphilic scores and secondary structures in silico. Six top-ranking peptides were synthesized for validation of their emulsifying and anti-adhesive activities in vitro. After preparation of peptide-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, the emulsifying activity was evaluated by droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), and microstructure. Emulsion stability was measured at different storage times and environmental stresses (pH, ionic strength, and thermal treatment). Anti-adhesive activity of the peptides against H. pylori was determined using an in vitro GES-1 cell line model. The possible anti-adhesive molecular mechanism was revealed by molecular docking.

Three out of six peptides (HLNLDFQLQEGGR, VNQAIYLLTTGAR, and ESLLNALTEHVK) showed the highest emulsifying activity due to their smaller droplet sizes of 1.396±0.015 µm, 1.163±0.010 µm, and 1.159±0.257 µm, respectively. VNQAIYLLTTGAR and ESLLNALTEHVK efficiently stabilized O/W macroemulsions for 6 h. Compared to Tween 80, only VNQAIYLLTTGAR showed substantial emulsifying stability at different pH values (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0), ionic strengths (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mM) and after thermal treatment (80 ℃ for 15 min). Moreover, the anti-adhesive activity of the peptides ranged from 36.3±2.0% (VNQAIYLLTTGAR) to 5.5±7.0% (AINDIRDQLER) at 10 mg/mL. This activity is attributable to binding of the peptides to adhesins (BabA and SabA) through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions.

In conclusion, VNQAIYLLTTGAR showed both biological and techno-functional properties, thus making it a strong candidate for further development as a dual functional food ingredient.

Protein purity, extraction efficiency, and morphology of yellow pea protein extracted with deep eutectic solvent as an alternative green extraction process
Oladipupo Olatunde, PhD; and Nandika Bandara, PhD, Assistant. Professor, Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

The increasing demands for eco-friendly processes within the framework of green and sustainable chemistry as well as the recognition of advantageous properties of deep eutectic solvent (DES) has positioned its use as a promising alternative to conventional extraction media in food production. Nevertheless, the application of DES in protein extraction is still in its infancy stage. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the protein purity, yield, recovery rate, and morphology of yellow pea protein extracted using DES as extraction medium in comparison with conventional protein extraction process (salt extraction, isoelectric precipitation, and air clarification methods). Protein yield, purity, and recovery rate of yellow pea protein extracted with different concentrations of DES (20, 40, 60, and 80% w/w) were evaluated and the extraction process was optimized. These parameters and morphology of the optimized sample compared to those of the conventional extraction methods were also investigated. Commercialized yellow pea protein was used as control. The protein yield, purity and recovery rate of yellow pea protein using different DES concentration were 76.66-95.30, 17.23-23.92, 65.48-72.71%, respectively, in which extraction with 60% DES was selected for further study. When compared to other extraction methods, protein yield, purity and recovery rate of yellow pea protein were 48.82-98.29, 12.36-19.70, 55.48-72.49%, respectively, in which salt extraction with 0.3 M NaCl had the highest purity followed by DES extraction. The protein yield and recovery rate were highest for DES extraction. Regardless of the adopted extraction method, yellow pea protein was sheet-like in structure. In conclusion, DES extraction was proven as a novel green protein extraction method from yellow pea protein, in which the highest yield and recovery were attained.

Functionalization of proteins in corn distillers solubles generated from novel selective milling technology
Sonu Sharma, PhD Engineering Candidate; Sindhu Kumari, PhD Engineering Candidate; Ranjan Pradhan, Special Graduate Faculty; Annamalai Manickavasagan, Associate Professor, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada; Mahendra Thimmanagari, Special Graduate Faculty, Food and Rural Affairs, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Canada; and Animesh Dutta, Professor, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences

Seeking low-cost, long-term protein sources helps many poor nations reduce their reliance on pricey animal-based protein. Because of its low cost and simple accessibility, corn distillers solubles (CDS) is a good alternative to underused feedstock from a unique selective milling process employed in the Ontarian bioethanol industry. Protein concentrate was extracted and characterized to evaluate its bio-prospecting potential. The separation of protein extracts was optimized using centrifugations, defatting, and viscozyme hydrolysis with heating and sonication pretreatments. Two-step centrifugations combined with defatting provided a protein extract of protein content 58.75 ± 0.70%. Further treatment of protein extract by viscozyme hydrolysis (25 µL, 6 h) with prior heating significantly increased protein content to 62.88±0.26%, titled as protein concentrate. However, sonication prior to viscozyme hydrolysis improved the structural properties but reduced considerable protein content and had insignificant effects on denaturation temperature. Optimized extract and concentrate of proteins were characterized using microscopy imaging, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and UV spectroscopy. The protein concentrate had Leu, Pro, Glu as key amino acids and good solubility at alkaline pH. Moreover, protein concentrate had the highest denaturation temperature and lowest enthalpy of denaturation. Optimized protein extract and protein concentrate exhibited good performance on emulsifying activity index, oil, and water absorption capacity, and foaming property. The water and oil adsorption capacities of protein concentrate were observed at 4.56 and 3.34 g/g, respectively, even much higher than those of soy protein isolate (3.94 and 2.95 g/g, respectively). The microscopy imaging revealed the amorphous and porous nature of PF2SDF to a greater extent as compared to other fractions, which could be correlated with lower digestion problems. Raman spectroscopy clearly showed the structural variations in the extract and concentrate of proteins. These results indicate that CDS holds great potential for application in the animal feed and food additive industry.

Student ePitch Competition II

Hongbing Fan, PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Session Introduction

This session is dedicated to student research on proteins, lipids, and their various co‐products. Instead of regular posters, participants will present a 5‐minute pitch for their research. Prizes will be awarded for the best pitches—be sure to vote!

Oleic acid-modified nanocrystalline cellulose for improving tensile properties of canola protein-based packaging films
Thilini Dissanayake, Student, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; Binh Trinh, Student, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada; Tizazu Mekonnen, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada; and Nandika Bandara, Assistant Professor, Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Biopolymers extracted from agricultural by-products have become an interesting raw material for developing sustainable bioproducts. As such, canola protein isolate derived from the canola meal, which is the by-product of the canola oil industry, is an excellent raw material for food packaging due to its proven film-forming capacity and high availability at a low cost. However, its use is limited by poor mechanical and barrier properties. The current study aims at improving the tensile properties of canola protein films using oleic acid-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (OA-NCC). Successful introduction of oleic acid (OA) to nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was confirmed by FTIR spectra of NCC. Canola protein films were fabricated using unmodified NCC (U-NCC) and OA-NCC (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9% of protein (w/w)) and followed by tensile properties were analyzed using Shimadzu AGS-X Universal Tester. The films with U-NCC and OA-NCC showed significantly increased tensile strength and elastic modulus values compared to control, except those with 1% U-NCC. Up to 5%, films with OA-NCC showed significantly increased values for tensile strength compared to the films with the same amount of U-NCC. After 5%, the difference between modified and unmodified NCC was insignificant, indicating OA-NCC starts to aggregate in the polymer matrix after passing the optimum level. Overall, tensile strength was increased from 1.85 MPa (control) to a maximum of 3.44 MPa (3% OA-NCC). In addition, elongation at break percentage was significantly enhanced for all the films with OA-NCC compared to control and films with U-NCC (from 52.85% (control) to 130.95% (7% OA-NCC). Improvement in the tensile strength of canola protein films is explained by the enhanced interactions between the molecules in the polymer matrix resulting from NCC associated with OA. Enhanced flexibility could be due to the introduction of the long-hydrocarbon chain of OA introduced into the polymer matrix.

Optimization of conditions for preparation of water in oil in water (w/o/w) emulsion to encapsulate Salmo salar protein hydrolysates
Janani Jayasinghe Mudiyanselage, Student, Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; Beth Mason, CEO, Verschuren Center for Sustainability in Energy and the Environment, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada; Nandika Bandara, Assistant Professor, Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada

Salmon protein hydrolysates that are generated from byproducts of Salmon fish processing have the potentiality to use as a functional food ingredient in the food industry as they possess important biological activities such as antioxidative activity, antihypertensive activity, antidiabetic activity, etc. So, choosing an appropriate delivery system is essential to apply in the food industry in order to retain their bioavailability and improve the digestive stability of the peptides. The aim of this study was to prepare a double emulsion (w/o/w) to encapsulate Salmo salar protein hydrolysates using homogenization and sonication techniques. A Box-Benkan design was used to optimize the conditions for the emulsion preparation. Independent variables were aqueous phase % in primary water in oil emulsion (W), aqueous phase% in w/o/w emulsion (WO), PGPR 90%(P), and Tween 80% (T). Dependent variables were particle size (nm), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (mV), and encapsulation efficiency (%). According to the response surface methodology, 27 combinations with three center points were formulated and run-in triplicates. Prediction of response was done using a second-order polynomial model. R2 values for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were 91.63, 36.78, 58.58, and 73.58% respectively. Optimized conditions for emulsion preparation: W = 20%, WO = 24.65%, P = 5.58% and T = 3% was obtained respectively. Optimization of double emulsion for encapsulating Salmo salar protein hydrolysates could be an aid in commercial application in the functional food industry.

Nanochitosan functionalized keratin derived biosorbents for heavy metal removal
Muhammad Zubair, PhD Candidate; Roopesh Syamaladevi, Dr/Assistant Professor; and Aman Ullah, Dr/Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Canada

Water is an essential life source for all the living creatures on the planet earth. However, release of wastewater into the environment has grown greatly due to industrial activities. Heavy metal water contamination is a huge issue around the world; arsenic pollution in groundwater alone has affected nearly 140 million people in 70 countries of the globe. Herein, we functionalized chicken feather keratin using nanochitosan into a biosorbent material. Chicken feathers have more than 90% of keratin proteins, with unique structure and functional properties. The chicken feathers were washed, ground, and then dissolved using reducing agents. After dissolution, keratin proteins were isolated from the solution using dialysis followed by freeze drying to obtain keratin proteins powder. The purified powdered keratin was dissolved and altered with nanochitosan to obtain the keratin/nanochitosan biosorbents. The biosorbents were tested for their heavy metal decontamination efficacy using laboratory synthetic water. Heavy metal adsorption experiments revealed that biosorbents can remove Arsenic, Selenium, Lead, Copper, Manganese, Cadmium up to 99% from metal contaminated (600 ppb) laboratory synthetic water. This excellent adsorption capacity was ascribed to the incorporation of nanochitosan, which improved the surface affinity of the keratin molecules, leading to increased sorption capacity. In conclusion, the development of effective sorption material which has great potential to be implemented on a large scale, will open up new horizons for water purification.

Judge Deliberation and Winner Announcement

Closing Remarks and Thank You

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