AOCS Annual Meeting Archives
104th Annual Meeting | Abstracts | Exhibitors | Short Courses | Program (.pdf)
Innovations in Teaching
PECIG 1: Effective Use of Statistics in Lipids Teaching and Research
Chair(s): A. Proctor, University of Arkansas, USA; L. Yao, Iowa State University, USA
Effective use of statistical methods in Sensory and Consumer Science
(1)University of Arkansas Department of Food Science, United States of America
Sensory Analysis has always relied heavily on the use of statistics. This probably stems from the fact that the discipline was not though to as a science in its early implementation in the 1950s and 1960s. As a result, advanced statistical techniques have made their way in all the modern sensory methods in use today. We will address in this talk several topics that deal with the use of statistics in sensory analysis. The topics covered will include (1) sensory instrumental relationships, (2) multivariate representations of sensory data, (3) consumer segmentation, and (4) preference mapping and product optimization. Sensory instrumental relationships are particularly relevant to lipid chemists who have access to lipid quality data and need to understand its relationship to sensory quality. The topic of multivariate representations of sensory data is interesting because it allows the graphical representation of complex data and the effective communication of results to non-scientists. we will also discuss consumer segmentation mostly for the industrial audience who constantly deal with consumer acceptance data and face formulation optimization dilemmas. Finally, we will address preference mapping and product optimization as it is relevant for researchers and ties in with a subsequent presentation on the use of experimental designs and statistics in research.
Importance of proper statistical analysis in lipid biochemistry: From basic research to clinical research
(1)University of North Dakota, United States of America
The use of proper statistical analysis is critical component of education that is often overlooked when teaching lipid biochemistry. Furthermore, the improper use of statistical analysis is an important ethical consideration that is often not discussed in classes teaching scientific ethics. As lipid biochemists may be involved in both basic and clinical research, the failure of understanding the proper use of statistics can result in data analysis leading to an inappropriate interpretation of these data, leading to significant problems. Because interpretation of results often leads to planning the next set of experiments or is done prior to submitting the results for publication, errant interpretation based upon improper statistical analysis can have dire implications. What is our educational strategy to prevent this outcome when teaching lipid biochemistry? While most lipid biochemists are far from “card-carrying” statisticians, we should all be practicing statisticians who understand basic statistical analysis, how that analysis is related to experimental design and interpretation of results, as well as the ethical considerations that the use of improper statistical analysis brings about. In this talk, I’ll discuss the important of statistical analysis in an interactive manner, giving examples of proper use, improper use, and lack of use. A discussion regarding the use of basic statistical analysis including Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA will be included as well.
Approaches in Engineering Teaching and Research
(1)University of Tennessee, United States of America
The ability to convey information in figures and tables, particularly when displayed values have uncertainty associated with them, is a particularly important skill in today’s interdisciplinary world. This presentation will describe how to calculate error bars using fundamental statistical approaches, such as the student t distribution, taking into account replicate measurements and uncertainty associated with the experimental protocol and/or measurements employed in the calculations. The proper formatting for tables and plots will also be described, where the audience will be given the opportunity to learn via critiquing. Error bars for parameters derived from slope and y-intercept values obtained via linear regression will also be described. The use of spreadsheeting to obtain these goals will be shared.
Factors to Consider in Design of Experiments and Data Analysis
(1)Bunge North America, United States of America
When we conduct an experiment, we change one or more process variables to observe the effect they have on response variables. Design of experiment is an efficient tool for planning such experiments to obtain data for analysis for valid conclusions. Project goal, individual objectives, and expected outcomes are key considerations in experimental design. However, available resources, measurement capabilities, acceptable confidence levels, time, design simplicity, and variability are some of the most important factors to define the experimental design and outcome. Choice of experimental design maximizes the quantity and quality of information for a given amount of experimental effort.
Panel Discussion and Q&A
Poster Session. Case Studies.
Chair(s): A. Wright, University of Guelph, Canada; D. Hayes, University of Tennessee, USA
Use of NutriBiochem Mobile Application in Lipid Education
S. Teri(1), D. Ma(2), D. Griffith(3), Q. Mahmoud(4), G. Newton(5)
(1)University of Guelph, Canada (2)University of Guelph, Canada (3)University of Guelph, Canada (4)University of Guelph, Canada (5)University of Guelph, Canada
Mobile technology is an ever-growing field that allows users to study “anytime, anywhere”. There is potential for both post-secondary students and professionals to benefit from mobile applications (apps), as they serve to conveniently provide instructional material. The NutriBiochem app was developed at the University of Guelph, and educates users about Nutrition and Biochemistry including lipids. The app contains 12 modules, each consisting of review cards and a multiple choice quiz feature. Review cards include pictures, diagrams and key points. Quiz questions are generated from a pool of over 1000 questions, and feedback detailing student proficiency in various areas is provided upon completion of each quiz. NutriBiochem is available at no cost, for any user with an iOS, Android or BlackBerry device or computer interface. While there have been over 3500 downloads across these platforms, the utility of such educational applications for post-secondary students is unknown. Thus, critical evaluation of the effectiveness of the NutriBiochem app is currently in progress at the University of Guelph and University of Guelph-Humber. Up-to-date statistics from this study will be presented at the conference in April 2013.
Fatty Acids: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
(1)University of Manitoba, Canada
Educating Undergraduate Students How to Make and Use Enzyme Kinetics Plots
(1)University of Tennessee, United States of America
The Michaelis-Menten mathematical model is foundational to describe enzyme kinetics, useful for the enzyme-catalyzed modification of lipids. However, its comprehension is truly transdisciplinary, requiring fundamental knowledge of enzyme kinetics, material balances, and applied mathematics and statistics. This poster will describe how this topic is covered in BsE 231, Biochemistry For Engineers, a Biosystems Engineering course typically taken by Sophomores. Students learn in parallelthrough lecture and homework assignments the fundamentals of chemical and enzyme kinetics, spreadsheeting, and several areas of applied mathematics: linear regression, log-log and semilog plots, and the art of manipulating mathematical equations to obtain it in a linear form. Students then learn the Michaelis-Menten model, and how to manipulate it to obtain linear plots: Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee plots, and subsequently an expansion of the Michaelis-Menten model that includes several types of inhibition. The learning experience culminates in a homework challenge to take a set of Michaelis-Menten kinetic data and determine the type of inhibition that occurs, and the values of the Michaelis-Menten model that includes units and error bars.
Understanding the Chemistry of Lipid Oxidation in Food
(1)DuPont Nutrition & Health, United States of America
Lipid oxidation has long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of lipid-bearing foods. Classical studies established the mechanism of autoxidation of lipids as a free radical chain reaction that proceeds through three main steps of initiation, propagation and termination. The important oxidation mechanisms in foods are autoxidation, photosensitized oxidation, thermal oxidation and enzymatic oxidation. Oxidation of unsaturated lipids not only produces off-odors and off-flavors but can also reduce the nutritional quality and safety of food. Simplified schemes explaining the mechanisms of lipid oxidation and useful methods of controlling lipid oxidation in food will be illustrated in this educational poster.
Teaching physicochemical properties of food macromolecules through lectures, hands-on-learning and class discussions
(1)University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Physicochemical Properties of Food Macromolecules (FABS 366), designed for 3rd year Food and Bioproduct Sciences major at the University of Saskatchewan, deals with structure and properties of food lipids, proteins and carbohydrates and how their interactions in foods lead to desired functionality. The objective of the course is to provide both fundamentals and practical knowledge on how these three major components influence structure-function relationship in foods. The curriculum for this course includes class lectures, discussions of selected publications and oral presentations and term papers on novel applications of lipids/proteins/carbohydrates in food and bioproducts. The learning experience is further enhanced by in-class demonstration of related samples, laboratory activities and industry visits. The lab sessions is designed to do experiments on fat crystallization, starch gelatinization, interfacial tension, gelation and emulsification and the students learn how these processes influence overall food structure and functionality. This poster will present an overview of the various teaching methods, laboratory design and data collected during hands-on experiments.
The recombinant yeast system as a teaching tool in plant lipid biotechnology
R. Weselake(1), G. Chen(2), M. Greer(3), X. Pan(4)
(1)University of Alberta, Canada (2)University of Alberta, Canada (3)University of Alberta, Canada (4)University of Alberta, Canada
Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its numerous non-lethal mutant strains are useful tools for studying the biochemical properties of recombinant lipid metabolic enzymes and for establishing proof-of-concept for introducing lipid modifications into plant oils through genetic engineering. While the recombinant yeast system is used widely in research by plant lipid scientists, this poster presentation focuses on the use of this unicellular system in teaching plant lipid biotechnology. Yeast is easily cultured and transformed, and many genetic resources are available. Since yeast is a eukaryote, it can perform post-translational modifications which are not possible in bacterial expression systems. Various non-lethal strains of yeast are available with defects in lipid metabolism which can often be complemented through the introduction of genes encoding these enzymes from other sources. In strain H1246, four genes encoding enzymes contributing to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis have been inactivated (Sandager et al., 2002, J Biol. Chem. 277:6478-6482). Heterologous expression of genes encoding TAG-biosynthetic enzymes from plant sources in H1246 can restore TAG accumulation. Thus, this yeast system is ideal for evaluating the functional properties of TAG-biosynthetic enzymes. Since yeast can import exogenous fatty acids from the growth medium and incorporate them into phospholipids and storage lipids, the organism is useful in gaining insight into the selectivity properties of acyltransferases. As an example, we have used strain H1246 to identify a flax (Linum usitatissimum) phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT), which catalyzes TAG synthesis, with enhanced selectivity for substrates containing α-linolenic acid (18:3cisΔ9, 12, 15).