AOCS Annual Meeting Archives
104th Annual Meeting | Abstracts | Exhibitors | Short Courses | Program (.pdf)
CAOCS 1: The Bruce McDonald Memorial Session: Advances in Canola Research
Chair(s): L. Campbell, Canola Council of Canada, Canada; V. Barthet, Canadian Grain Commission, Canada
(1)University of Guelph, Canada
New Generation Oils - Solutions in the pipeline
(1)Dow AgroSciences Canada Inc, Canada
The past several years presented one of largest challenges to industry in many decades as science, regulations and consumer demand has driven a systemic replacement of trans fats in the food supply. The challenge continues as food manufacturers seek to keep saturated fats low in their products and highlight cleaner labels. New generation oils have emerged that provide a full package of attributes including health, taste and functionality. Omega-9 canola oil has already removed over one billion pounds of trans and saturated fat from the North American food supply High levels of monounsaturated fatty acids help make this possible because of their benefits to health and unique value for providing stability and long shelf-life. Processed food remains the new industry frontier for replacement with healthier oils because of the unique needs of various product categories. New blended products are coming to market and proprietary oils blends can provide solutions for food products that need to improve their labels. Emerging technologies and new processes used on products like popcorn can also substantially improve health profiles while still meeting the consumer demand for good taste.
Effects of Canola Oils Varying in Fatty Acid Composition on Lipid Profiles and Cardiovascular Risk Scores in the Canola Oil Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (COMIT)
P. Jones(1), V. Senanayake(2), S. Pu(3), P. Connelly(4), P. Kris-Etherton(5), S. West(6), B. Lamarche(7), D. Jenkins(8), J. Fleming(9), X. Liu(10), C. McCrea(11), P. Couture(12)
(1)Univesity of Manitoba, Canada (2)University of Manitoba, Canada (3)University of Manitoba, Canada (4)University of Toronto, Canada (5)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (6)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (7)Laval University, Canada (8)University of Toronto, Canada (9)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (10)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (11)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (12)Laval University, Canada
Oleic acid-rich oils have beneficial effects on blood lipids and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. DHA supplementation has the potential to increase HDL-C and LDL-C, while oleic acid-rich oils affect HDL levels only when exchanged for carbohydrates. The objective was to examine the health effects of oleic acid-rich canola oil on blood lipid parameters versus regular canola oil and oleic acid-rich oil enriched with DHA. A 5-period, cross-over, randomized, double blind design was conducted, of which 3 periods are presented here. Treatments lasted for one month with a minimum of 4-wk washout period between treatments. Individuals (n=130) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference >80 cm for females or 94 cm for males) and one additional criteria for metabolic syndrome completed the trial. Participants consumed in random order, 3 identical prepared solid food, weight-maintaining, fixed composition diets (35% energy from fat, 50% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) supplemented with one of the following treatment oils (60g/d) in the form of shakes: 1) Canola (CAN, 35.2 g oleic acid); 2) High oleic canola (HO-CAN, 42.9 g of oleic acid) and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola (DHA-CAN, 37.9 g oleic acid and 3.5g of DHAWhen subjects were fed HO-CAN, they showed lower endpoint LDL-C values compared to DHA-CAN (p=0.005). Endpoint LDL-C levels did not differ between CAN and HO-CAN. Endpoint HDL-C values were higher after DHA-CAN treatment than CAN (p=0.02) and HO-CAN (p=0.007). Moreover, endpoint TG values were lower after DHA-CAN treatment than CAN (p=0.002) and HO-CAN (p<0.0001). No differences existed in endpoint LDL-C, TG, HDL-C,
Efficacy of canola oils and vegetable oil blends on abdominal fat mass in men and women at risk for metabolic syndrome
X. Liu(1), P. Kris-Etherton(2), S. West(3), B. Lamarche(4), D. Jenkins(5), J. Flaming(6), C. McCrea(7), P. Couture(8), S. Pu(9), P. Jones(10)
(1)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (2)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (3)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (4)Laval University, Canada (5)University of Toronto, Canada (6)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (7)The Pennsylvania State University, United States of America (8)Laval University, Canada (9)University of Manitoba, Canada (10)University of Manitoba, Canada
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) improve metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomology. Therefore, vegetable oils high in MUFA may lower CVD risk in individuals with MetS. We evaluated the efficacy of five vegetable oil treatments including corn/safflower oil (69.3% LA, 17.6% MUFA), canola oil (62.8% MUFA, 29.3% PUFA: 19.5% LA, 10% ALA), high oleic canola oil (72% MUFA, 17% PUFA: 15% LA, 2% ALA), high oleic canola oil with DHA (63.8% MUFA, 13% LA, 6% DHA), and flax/safflower oil (69.4% PUFA: 37.5% LA, 32% ALA, 17.9% MUFA) on abdominal fat mass in participants with central obesity at risk for MetS. A multi-center, double blind, randomized, 5-period crossover, controlled feeding study was conducted. Subjects (n=121: 62 women, 59 men) were fed an isocaloric heart healthy diet containing one of the five treatment oils incorporated in a smoothie for 4 weeks followed by a 2 to 4 break between experimental diets. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the end of each diet period. We will present information about changes in abdominal fat mass in all treatment groups after consumption of the different oils and oil blends. Preliminary data demonstrate a reduction in abdominal fat mass in subjects on the canola oil treatments (canola and high oleic canola) compared to the flax/safflower oil treatment. There were no significant changes on abdominal fat mass on the other oil treatments. Further analyses are underway to evaluate the gynoid fat deposits and the ratio of android to gynoid fat mass.
Canola in Type 2 Diabetes
(1)University of Toronto / St.Michael's Hospital/U of T, Canada
Canola oil enriched bread as part of low glycemic index was feed to 141 type 2 diabetic participants for a 3 months period. In the intent to treat analyses the canola diet resulted in a small non significant relation in HbA1C which was significant in the completer analyses. A significant reduction in LDL-C was seen in both the ITT and completer analyses with no change in HDL-C or BP. The preliminary data suggest that canola may be used to reduce the glycemic load of the dietsof patients with type 2 diabetes without impairing carbohydrate tolerance, while improving the blood lipid profile.
A diet high in ALA and MUFA attenuates hepatic steatosis and favorably alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats
C. Taylor(1), D. Hanke(2), S. Mohankumar(3), P. Zahradka(4)
(1)University of Manitoba, Canada (2)University of Manitoba, Canada (3)University of Manitoba, Canada (4)University of Manitoba, Canada
Hepatic steatosis, a common co-morbidity in obesity, is associated with reduced n-3 fatty acid (FA) status. The present study investigated whether diets high in ALA, a plant-based n-3 FA, can attenuate hepatic steatosis and obesity, and elevate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in hepatic and adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Obese Prone Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, conventional canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil or lard for 12 weeks. The reduction of hepatic steatosis in the C/F group was associated with improved n-3 status (total n-3, EPA, DHA) and reduced arachidonic acid (n-6) in hepatic phospholipids (PL). Furthermore, the C/F group had among the highest mRNA levels for desaturation (Fads-1, Fads-2) and elongation (Evolv-2) enzymes in liver. In terms of obesity, fat mass was unchanged, and the C/F diet did not elevate EPA and DHA in adipose tissue. In conclusion, our data in DIO rats indicate that a diet high in ALA and MUFA can attenuate hepatic steatosis and favourably alter hepatic and PL FA profile by elevating EPA and DHA.
Canola Oil Uses in Today's Food Industry
(1)Archer Daniels Midland Company, United States of America
Canola Oil has a long history of being used as a salad oil for the retail bottled oil market and in mayonnaise and salad dressings. Since the early 2000's canola oil use has expanded into many apllications where low trans and lower saturate oils are needed for a variety of stand alone uses or in blends with other oils to target saturate reduction, improved flavor quality or improved oxidative stability. Canola oil is also being used to produce low trans fat shortenings by being blended with palm oil, palm fractions of fully hydrogenaetd veegtable oils. This review paper will cover current and new uses for canola oil.
Development of chemicals and materials from canola oil and solving the analytical challenges along the way.
(1)University of Alberta, Canada
The development of polymeric materials and intermediate chemicals from lipid feedstocks is gaining importance as part of the trend towards finding alternative renewable sources that can replace petrochemicals. Unsaturated lipids can be functionalised via oxidation or other reactions to produce intermediate chemicals. However, starting with the mixed triglyceride structures found in canola or other plant oils results in a great complexity of reaction products. In these cases, detailed analyses by sophisticated LC/MS methods cannot resolve or identify many components. Monitoring the formation of key chemical classes, such as epoxides or hydroxyl groups, provides a more straightforward approach and can be achieved in some cases via FTIR measurements. This presentation will explore some of the analytical methods that have been required in the development materials and chemicals from canola oil.