PRO 1: Processor Topics
Chair(s): J. Strickland, Ag Processing Inc., USA; and G. Hatfield, Bunge Canada, Canada
Tribute to: Richard D. Farmer—1941–2007. M. Snow, Bunge North America, St. Louis, MO, USA
What a privilege to have the opportunity to pay tribute to such a fine man, friend, supporter, boss and mentor. This tribute will provide the opportunity to share how Dick's life impacted so many of us in Bunge as well as the industry as a whole by focusing on improving processes and people. Our feelings for Mr. Farmer are perhaps best summed up by the comments of a former shift supervisor."For those who knew him; we were fortunate. For those who didn't; they missed out" J.B. Brown, Shift Supervisor, Bunge Destrehan, LA
Solvent Safety in Processing Industry. M. Taber, Conocophillips, Houston, TX, USA
Conoco Phillips' commercial Hexane has been utilized in the oil processing industry for many years as an extraction solvent. Of particular interest is providing industry with assistance in the area of hydrocarbon safety relating to the basic hazards of handling and storage of flammable liquids. This presentation will provide an overview of hydrocarbon solvent safety.
Railroad Implementation and Exploitation of Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) RFID Technology. Andrew Friend, Application Technology by Design, Papillion, NE, USA
Learn the history that lead to an estimated $.5B investment in an unproven technology and how it has helped the railroad industry turn the corner and join the technology main stream. Cover the basics of value added implementation. Learn the how and why of industry standardization to facilitate exploitation. Share the main frame host operating system integration which affects all aspects of modern railroading.
Environmental Safety and Health Issues Facing the Processing Industry. D.B. Smith, Louis Dreyfus Agricultural Industries LLC, Claypool, IN, USA
Today, processors are facing many different environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. Some of these regulations and requirements result in issues that are plant related and need immediate attention. Other issues exist that must be dealt with at a corporate level, requiring companies to develop and implement new strategies and programs that involve all of their locations. Still other issues are being faced by the entire processing industry. These may require the industry to coordinate activities through trade associations to shape future regulations. This presentation will identify and review current issues from each of these different perspectives.
The Talent Jungle. Raymond Weinberg, Consultant, USA
It's a jungle out there! The fat, oil and surfactant industry is facing a critical shortage of workers at all levels. The rules for survival in this jungle have changed. The old ways of dealing with the new workforce are a prescription for failure. This session will provide practical solutions to addressing the following talent jungle challenges: - Increasing the qualified talent pool - Recruiting in a tight market - Selecting high performers - Retaining key talent Research-based talent management practices that can be taken back to participant's workplaces will be provided.
Oil Seeds Extraction and Meal Processing. George Anderson, Crown Iron Works, USA
PRO 2: Processing Hot Topics
Chair(s): J. Willits , Desmet Ballestra North America Inc., USA; and M. Snow, Bunge North America Inc., USA
Electrical Power Systems Arc Flash Hazards and Protection. M. Wirfs, R&W Engineering, Inc., Beaverton, OR, USA
An overview of current and emerging requirements for personnel protection requirements for operations and maintenance of electrical power systems. Will include references to current OSHA standards for implementation.
Glycerine as a Fuel Additive in a Waste Wood Fuel Boiler. P. Hankey, Carolina Soya LLC, Estill, SC, USA
Energy sources and energy cost constitute one of the most significant inputs both for oilseed processing and biodiesel manufacturing. When a facility has both of these operations on a common site, substantial energy savings can be accomplished by sharing the steam needs and utilizing available co-products as fuels. One such sharing is combining a low cost biomass boiler fuel, bark and sawdust, with a by-product of biodiesel manufacturing, glycerin. The economic and technical components of this fuel sharing in an actual on-going operation are explored with some unexpected consequences.
Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification. S.W. Pearce1, W.D. Cowan2, J.E. Willits3, 1Novozymes NA, Franklington, NC, USA, 2Novozymes UK, Chesham, Bucks, UK, 3DeSmet Process & Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
Enzymatic interesterification is now viewed as an established technology for the modification of bulk fats. As the process has been running for some time at the factory level, it is now possible to make a comparison of interesterifying fats by enzymatic and chemical technologies on an industrial scale. This will include the processes themselves and both pre-interesterification and post-interesterification requirements relative to raw materials and equipment requirements, as well as product finishing steps. Issues of catalyst handling, current labelling issues and environmental impact will also be addressed.
I.P. (Identity Preserved) Oil Seeds and Their Effect on the Processing Operations. David Jenkins, Bunge DuPont Biotech Alliance, St. Louis, MO, USA
The oilseed industry is experiencing changes all across the value chain as we bring new identity preserved oils to market. How will processing operations be impacted? This presentation will examine some of the opportunities and challenges we face as we meet customer demands with IP oils.
U.S. Railroad Industry Overview. Gregory Guthrie, BNSF Railway Agricultural Products, USA
PRO 3 / EXH 2: Processing Exhibitor Session
Chair(s): T. Neuman, Westfalia Separator Inc., USA; and R. Berbesi, Oil-Dri Corporation of America, USA
Case Study of Vienna BioDiesel Plant - Construction, Implementation and Operation. Hermann Stockinger, BDI - BioDiesel International AG, Grambach/ Graz, Styria, Austria
The case study takes a close look at the BioDiesel plant in Vienna realised by BDI - BioDiesel International AG. This turn-key, tailor-made Multi-Feedstock BioDiesel plant uses BDI technology to produce 95.000 t/y (28.5 Mio USgal) of high-quality BioDiesel fulfilling the strictest product standards according to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. After its Start-Up in June 2006 the plant is running at full capacity and it is intended to extend the capacity to 140.000 t/y (42 Mio USgal). The BDI Multi-Feedstock technology on the one hand allows to use crude vegetable oils (e.g. rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil) as well as used cooking oil as feedstock, and on the other hand achieves highest yield by converting all free fatty acids into BioDiesel. Apart from BioDiesel, pharmaceutical grade glycerine and fertilizer are produced as sellable by-products. The plant is one of 28 reference plants of BDI currently in operation or construction all over the world. BDI - BioDiesel International offers - Research, Development, Consulting - Project Development, Management of Financing & Funding - Authority-, Basic and Detail-Engineering - Construction and Start-up - After-Sales ServicesThe presentation will go through all these steps emphasising on the realization process of the Vienna Biodiesel plant project.
HyRadix Hydrogen Generation Systems. Terry Schuster, HyRadix, Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA
HyRadix provides proven, high purity, on-site hydrogen generation systems for hydrogenation of oils and chemicals. HyRadix systems offer multiple benefits over conventional hydrogen delivery solutions including cost savings, security of supply and flexibility of operations. The generators are skid mounted packaged plants designed for quick installation. The HyRadix hydrogen generation technology and hydrogen waste gas recovery technology will be presented as well as a simplified case study.
Oilseed Pressing Challenges: Today Canola - Tomorrow Jatropha. J. Schulz, Harburg-Freudenberger Maschinenbau GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
Rising oil prices ask for more efficient mechanical oil extraction systems. With a combination of revolutionary mechanical engineering and a two-step full-pressing process Harburg-Freudenberger has the answer for today's needs. Tomorrow Jatropha oil will replace other seed oils valuable for human consumption as biofuel. In preparation of a growing processing demand HF has done extensive testing on jatropha and developed a matching pressing process. This makes HF the leading screw press and pressing process supplier not only for today's applications but also for the challenges to come.
The Expanding World of Oil Seed Preparation. S. Serra, Desmet Allocco, DeSmet Ballestra, USA
New Advances in Oil Fractionation from Desmet Ballestra. J.W. Willits, Desmet Allocco, DeSmet Ballestra, USA
New Emerging Fatty Alcohol Technologies: Challenge to a Catalyst Designer. D. Thakur, BASF Catalysts LLC, USA.
Evolution of Separator Design. B. Harten, Westfalia, USA.
Use of Selective Silicates in Biodiesel Water Wash Elimination. D. Brooks, Oil-Dri Corporation of America, USA.
AM 4 / PRO 4: Processing Methods and Concerns for Fish Oil and Fish Meal
Chair(s): N. Dunford, Oklahoma State University, USA; K. Koch, Northern Crops Institute, USA; and S. Metin, Cargill, Inc., USA
Improvement of Stability and Quality of Food Grade Fish Oil. W.M. Indrasena, C.J. Barrow, J.A. Kralovec, Ocean Nutrition Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada
Beneficial effects of essential fatty acids such as EPA and DHA have been broadly recognized during the past two decades, and the global demand for dietary supplements containing these miraculous bio-active compounds has been increasing exponentially. These highly unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable for rapid oxidation resulting in the production of off odours and flavours. Therefore, it is imperative to produce oil that has bland taste and odour.It is essential to protect the oil from oxidation during the process as well as to remove the compounds that give off flavour to the oil, and compounds that are detrimental to the oxidative stability. Significant reduction of chemical contaminants such as heavy metals is also essential. Several purifying steps such as refining, bleaching and deodorization are required for the removal of most objectionable and deleterious substances that contribute to off-flavours.Fish oils with varied amounts of EPA and DHA were bleached and deodorized with natural antioxidants and some selected antioxidants were added after deodorization. The quality of the oil including sensory properties was monitored during the storage using both subjective and objective analyses. This presentation will emphasize the possible improvement of the quality of oil using various antioxidants during bleaching and deodorization processes.
Diversity in Fish Oils and Fish Meals Derived from Alaska Seafood By-Products. A.C.M. Oliveira1, P.J. Bechtel2, S. Smiley1, S. Plante1, 1Univeristy of Alaska Fairbanks, Kodiak, AK, USA, 2ARS, USDA, Fairbanks, AK, USA
Alaska annually processes roughly 2.2 million mt (Mmt) of fish harvested for human food, generating some 1.5 Mmt of fish waste, depending on season, species composition and product form. In the western Gulf of Alaska and along the Bering Sea, larger seafood processing operations are mandated by regulation to effectively handle the by-products of seafood processing. These concerns employ wet- reduction processing to manufacture co-products such as fish meal, bone meal, fish oil and stickwater from this material. In 2003, it was estimated that the total amount of Alaska byproducts produced on a dry matter basis was 208 599 Mmt, and that about 40% of the solids were reported to be recovered as fish meal and fish oil. Alaskan fish oil production, while difficult to document, is probably between 30,000 and 45,000 T per annum. Nonetheless, the volume of oil that could be extracted from Alaska seafood by-products could be upwards of 70,000 T. In this presentation some important chemical and nutritional characteristics of commercial Alaska groundfish meals and salmon fish meals will be discussed. Furthermore, the composition of commercial fish oils produced from the processing byproduct streams of walleye pollock, pink salmon, sockeye salmon, Pacific Ocean perch, and sablefish will be presented.
Processing of Fish Oil to Minimize Deterioration. E. Hernandez, Omega Pure, Houston, TX, USA
Omega 3 fatty acids, especially from fish oil, have been widely studied for their health promoting properties. As a result consumption of Omega 3 oils or PUFAS have increased and are now commonly applied to foods and used as dietary supplements. Fish oils are normally processed for the removal of impurities, contaminants and to make them palatable for human consumption. Processing steps include chemical or physical refining, bleaching, winterizing and deodorizing. All polyunsaturated oils, including omega-3 oils, are inherently unstable and prone to oxidation. Consequently fish oil is susceptible to rapid deterioration during processing, cooking or storage. Threfore special precautions have to be taken to minimise extreme processing conditions such as excessive heating, exposure to oxygen and reactive metals. This presentation will review techniques commonly followed to prevent deterioration of fish oil during processing, such as lower temperatures in refining, use of antioxidants, molecular distillation, and special packaging.
Overview of Fish Protein and Lipid Recovery from Processing Waste. R.B. Johnson, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA 98112, USA
Use of Lipases for the Production of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates from Fish Oil. T. Okada , M. Morrissey, Oregon State University, Portland, OR, USA
The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) is a coastal pelagic fish found from the Gulf of California to Southeastern Alaska and have made a strong biological comeback in the Oregon and Washington coastal area. Currently, the majority of the sardine catch is frozen whole and sold at prices to Asian markets for both the bait fishes as well as human food. Because of the recent interest in the health benefits of marine oils this study was initiated to determine different methods of oil extraction from the Pacific sardine. Commercially available microbial lipases, from Candida Rugosa (CR), Candida cylindracea (CC), Mucor javanicus (MJ), and Aspergillus niger (AN) were used for enzymatic hydrolyses with extracted sardine oil, run at 37ºC with constant stirring for 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 h. Fatty acid composition analysis by gas chromatography showed that the refined unhydrolyzed oil contained 26.86% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 13.62% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (wt/wt%). CR lipase was the most effective in concentrating n-3 PUFA. Hydrolysis with 250 U CR lipase increased EPA concentration to a relatively constant level of 33.74% after 1.5 h. DHA levels were also significantly increased from 13.62 to 29.94% with 500 U after 9 h. Compared to CR and CC lipases, MJ and AN lipases resulted in low n-3 PUFA concentration. TG levels decreased significantly as reaction time progressed. An additional study was conducted to develop an immobilized-enzyme system to entrap lipase in chitosan-alginate-CaCl2 beads for the purpose of concentrating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from sardine oil. Lipase was immobilized by an ionotropic gelatin method, and its characteristics were determined. Optimum pH of immobilized lipase shifted from 7.0 to 6.0, and immobilized lipase showed higher stability against pH and temperature changes. Immobilized lipase significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid from 25.21% to 39.64% and docosahexaenoic acid from 7.18% to 15.33%. This study demonstrated a simple method to immobilize lipase and concentrate n-3 PUFA with a solvent-free process.
BIO 4 / PRO 4.1: Bioprocessing-Enzymes
Chair(s): H.C. Holm, Novozymes AS, Denmark; and N. Dunford, Oklahoma State University, USA
The Use of Lipases in High Acid Animal Fat and Tropical Oils for Biodiesel Production. G. Malta2, R. Sponquiado2, V. Ferraz3, W. Artz4,1, S. Segall1,2, 1A&S Bioenergia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 2UNIBH, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 3UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 4UIUC, Urbana, IL, USA
The objective of the work was to compare chemical and enzymatic catalysts for conversion of various oil sources to ethyl esters for use as biodiesel. Three fat sources, animal fat, castor oil and pequi oil, were used to produce biodiesel with transesterification reactions using lipases (lipolase, palatase and lipex) and NaOH. Ethanol was used with 2 molar ratios (6:1 and 12:1 ethanol/triacylglycerols). The reactions were performed at 55C and 45C with NaOH and lipases, respectively. The catalyst concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 5, 7.5 and 10% for chemical and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. The fat sources performed differently with different catalysts. The animal fat used was a “low cost residue” with a high acid value (up to 14%). When used with NaOH, the conversion rates were very low or nonexistent. However, conversion rates up to 82% were obtained using lipolase with the high value acid animal fat. The conversion rates for castor oil and pequi oil did not show great differences between the biological and chemical catalysts. The enzymatic catalysts proved very useful for biodiesel production using feedstock with a high acid value but further adjustments need to be made to achieve the high industrial conversion rates needed to produce biodiesel. All the ethyl esters were analyzed using a GC with an internal standard (margaric acid).
Enzymatic Production of Mono- and Diglycerides. X. Xu, The University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Enzymatic processing of oils and fats has been the research and development areas for 20 years. The brainstorming of application ideas has been the main concern for most previous studies. Enzyme technology has been used for numberless product development. The basic understanding of the enzymatic reactions has been highly advanced. It is now in the stage for industrial take-over. Central issues for commercial exploitation lie in benefits in economy, product quality, product nutrition, simplicity and easiness of technology, social and environmental concerns. For technologists, a big concern is to develop the efficient processes focusing on most beneficial products with as high as possible of the economical turnover. This often refers to product development and process development. In this talk, a special focus will be given on the enzymatic production of partial glycerides where the system is often complicated by the three phase media. The development is targeted on simplicity, efficiency, and practical feasibility.
Improved Enzymatic Esterification by Novel Reactor Concepts. O. Thum1, L. Hilterhaus2, A. Liese2, 1Evonik Goldschmidt GmbH, Essen, Germany, 2Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany
Even though the enzymatic production of bulk chemicals, such as of cosmetic ingredients, has already been established on multi ton scale, there are still technical limitations existing that need to be overcome. For example fixed bed reactor systems are limited to low viscous reaction mixtures whereas classical strirred tank reactors destroy enzyme immobilisates and therefore do not allow sufficient reuse of expensive catalysts.We have developed an universal reactor concept for enzymetic esterifications that allows the use of raw materials of low and high viscosity. As model reaction served the synthesis of fatty acid esters of simple fatty alcohols as well as of high viscous polyglycerols.Furthermore the new reactor concept allows easy product separation and catalyst recovery, minimizes mechanical stress to the biocatalysts, reduces reaction times compared to known production methods and causes only low investment costs.
New Immobilized Lipases for Production of Biodiesel. S. Basheer, M. Haj, M. Kayal, TransBiodiesel, Ltd., Shfar-Am, Israel
Mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from different oils and fats have been commercially prepared at industrial scales and are currently being used as biodiesel in many countries around the world. Biodiesel is prepared using either base- or acid-catalyzed conventional chemical processes.Lipases offer an attractive alternative in order to avoid the drawbacks of the chemical processes currently practiced for the conversion of oils and fats to biodiesel. This group of enzymes is capable of catalyzing the direct transesterification reaction between oil triglycerides and short-chain alcohols to yield biodiesel and glycerol. Unfortunately, the economic costs for commercially available lipases are still unaffordable for production of biodiesel. This work will present the potential of lipases modified-immobilized following different techniques for the production of biodiesel at semi-industrial scales with competitive costs compared to the conventional chemical processes.
New Enzyme Process for Biodiesel. P.M. Nielsen, H.C. Holm, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark
Research on enzymatic catalyzed biodiesel production has been carried out in several groups around the world during the last ten years. The research has mainly focused on development of a process capable of processing low quality oils with high free fatty acid content as this raw material is causing technical problems in chemically catalyzed processing. A few articles document the productivity of the enzyme catalyst and can be expressed as the amount of biodiesel produced per kg of enzyme. This productivity data can be used to calculate the catalyst cost and to compare to chemical catalyst. It becomes evident that the economy is still a problem with the enzymes availabe today. However, new developments in enzyme technology are able to provide catalysts at a price level where the biodiesel production costs become competitive to chemical catalyzed processing. This paper discusses the challenges in the biodiesel process with respect to enzyme stability and efficiency in the biodiesel process, and how they can be solved.
Enzymatic Process for Biodiesel Production and its Industralization Progress. W. Du, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, China
Biodiesel production with enzymatic approaches Lipase-catalyzed transesterification from renewable oils for biodiesel production has many advantages over chemical approaches though the latter has been put into the industrialization for biodiesel production. However, the low stability (poor operational life) and the high cost of the lipase have been thought to be the main hurdle to the industrialization of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production. Tsinghua University has proposed a novel route and the operational life of the immobilized lipase could be improved over 50-fold than traditional enzymatic approaches. This novel route is thought to be very promising for the commercialization of biodiesel production since it would reduce the lipase cost dramatically by significantly improving the stability and the operational life of the lipase. The demonstrational test in a pilot plant with capacity of 100kg/d biodiesel was successful. A new plant with 20,000ton/year capacity has been constructed in Hunan, China and it was put into operation in Dec. 8, 2006. The results from the full scale operation are even better than in the pilot plant demonstration. Integrated production of 1,3-PDO from by-product glycerol As a by-product, glycerol will be yielded at about 10% of biodiesel during the process of biodiesel production. How to convert glycerol has become a common problem which has to be resolved if considering large amount of biodiesel production. Integrated production of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) from glycerol could be a promising way to improve the profit of the whole process during biodiesel production.1,3-PDO is a valuable chemical material and especially it could be copolymerizes with terephthalic acid (or methyl ester) to form polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT). PTT has excellent properties compared to other polymers such as PET. 1,3-PDO can be synthesized from petrochemicals by chemical approaches or manufactured from renewable substrates by fermentation. However, it's well known that there are many disadvantages associated with chemical approaches for 1,3-PDO production, such as low selectivity, high temperature and high pressure needed etc. Especially the material for chemical approaches is unrenewable and some intermediates such as ethylene oxide and acrolein are explosive or high toxic. Therefore, fermentation approaches for 1,3-PDO production have drawn more and more attention by considering its advantages over chemical method such as relatively low investment, mild reaction conditions and using renewable sources as the starting materials.Tsinghua University has proposed a novel flexible process for 1,3-PDO production from glycerol or glucose, and the demonstration was finished in pilot plant at the end of 2003 and in industrial scale(50m3fermentor) in June 2006. The purity of final product 1,3-PDO is as good as 99.92%. Some 1,3-PDO sample was tested for PTT polymerization by Chinese and Japanese companies. The results showed that the key characteristics (such as inherent viscosity) of PTT polymerized with the 1,3-PDO produced by biological route are even better than that by chemical route. Currently the large-scale production of 1,3-PDO(20000tons/year) is being under construction. Based on the above technology, It could be well integrated to produce biodiesel and 1,3-PDO.
State-of-the-Art Enzymatic Processing of Fish Oils. J.A. Kralovec, W. Wang, P.F. Mugford, M.A. Potvin, C.J. Barrow, Ocean Nutrition Canada, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
Omega-3 fatty acids are important components of a balanced diet and not surprisingly they have an established position as science-backed nutritional supplements and ingredients of functional foods. Fish oils are the best sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two most important omega-3 fatty acids. Naturally, the development of novel methodologies geared towards the production of EPA/DHA concentrates plays a significant role in R&D efforts at Ocean Nutrition Canada (ONC). Remarkable progress has been made in the area of enzyme driven technologies with two of the concepts being transferred in different variants to the manufacturing scale, the conversion of EPA/DHA ethyl ester (EE) concentrates to the corresponding triglycerides (TG) and the formation of DHA/EPA enriched fish oil involving hydrolysis by selective lipases. Although omega-3 TG concentrates can be prepared using enzymatic trans-esterification of the omega-3 EE concentrates with glycerol, the process involves a total split of the original TG molecules and it may lead to the re-esterified TG molecules that may structurally be very different. The second concept does not suffer from this potential drawback. It is based on the selective removal of saturated fatty acid residues from fish oil, followed by re-esterification of the generated mono- and diglycerides with EPA or DHA in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B. The hydrolysis was tested on starting oils with various EPA and DHA levels using different lipases. The regio-specificity of the trans-esterification and the re-esterification was investigated and the structural assessment of the final products was conducted. The results were compared with the data obtained for the starting natural fish oils.
Bioprocessing from the Crop to the Bottle: What to Expect from Enzymes in the Future Oil Processing Line. M. Kellens, W. De Greyt, De Smet Ballestra Group, Brussels, Belgium
The use of enzymes in our daily food is quite established and generally accepted. Without enzymes, we even would not exist. Newer food products are introduced in the market where enzymes play a crucial role: special treated yoghurts, nutrient enzyme enriched drinks, enzyme treated nutritional minor components, meat treated with enzymes to make it tenderer and so on. Enzymes play also a key role in various household and industrial cleaning products, especially to breakdown fatty substances. Today, we see a similar evolution in the oil processing industry: more and more chemical based processes are being replaced by enzyme based treatments. Some of them are applied already today on an industrial scale. Typical examples are the enzymatic degumming, enzymatic oil recovery from gums and enzymatic interesterification. Although proven on both technical and economical level, the industry remains reluctant and hesitating. Major reason for this is the lack of knowledge which in turn results in a lack of confidence. But this is changing, mainly thanks to the continuing efforts of enzyme producing companies as Novozymes.Other potential development areas in oils and fats processing, where enzymes are tested, are in the mechanical extraction (enzyme assisted pressing), enzymatic transesterification (biodiesel production), and enzymatic fat splitting. And we may expect enzymes to be introduced in even more processes. But much will depend upon the stability and activity of these biocatalytic wonders of nature.
A New Process for Degumming: The Use of Phospholipase C to Improve Yields during Refining of High Phosphorus Vegetable Oils. N. Barton, Verenium Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA
A phospholipase C (PLC) enzyme product has been developed to increase oil yield during the degumming of high phosphorus vegetable oils. The PLC is process-compatible, requiring minimal capital investment for implementation. The application of PLC does not require the adjustment of the pH of the water in oil emulsion prior to enzyme addition. The oil yield is increased due to the conversion of hydratable phospholipids to diacylglycerol (DAG) that remains in the oil and the reduction of the amount of neutral oil lost during primary centrifugation. The use of PLC does not result in the production of additional free fatty acids. While PLC can be used with a variety of oils including canola, rapeseed, corn, and sunflower, it provides the most significant yield improvement when used to degum soybean oil due to the high percentage of hydratable phospholipids present in the crude oil (up to 70%). For example, when used to treat a soybean oil containing 900 ppm phosphorus, PLC provides a 1.2% DAG bonus and a 0.8% neutral oil gain to produce an overall yield improvement of 2%.
Enzymatic Degumming of Vegetable Oils. C.L.G. Dayton, Bunge North America, Bradley, IL, USA
The use of enzymes for vegetable oil degumming fulfills the promise for a third wave in Biotech. The enzymatic degumming is already competing with traditional manufacturing processes and has achieved industrial sustainability. A thorough examination of the process waste reduction and its economical implications will be made for the current and next generation of enzymes for vegetable oil degumming in food and biodiesel production.
State-of-the-Art Enzymatic Processing in the Oils and Fats Industry and Future Perspectives. W.D. Cowan1, H.C. Holm2, 1Novozymes UK, Chesham, Bucks, UK, 2Novozymes DK, Bagsvaerd, DK
This paper examines the latest developments in enzymatic processing as applied to the oils and fats industry with particular reference to bulk fat modification and degumming. In addition is will use results from ongoing laboratory trials to present a perspective on where the industry could usefully apply enzymatic solutions in the near future
PRO 5: General Session
Chair(s): J. Baldi, Argentinian Fats and Oils Association (ASAGA), Argentina; and J. Massingil, Texas State University, USA
De-Oiling of Liquid Soy Lecithin by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. M. Bork1, C. Luetge1, Z. Knez2, 1Uhde High Pressure Technologies, Hagen, Germany, 2University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
The demand of green products requires the use of a green solvent like CO2. Several processes for de-oiling of Soy raw lecithin are proposed by different research groups, for example the jet extraction by means of supercritical CO2 by Stahl et al , the use of Propane as solvent by Peter at al , pre-saturation of raw lecithin by ben-Nasr , high specific CO2-rates at higher pressures as described by Rosolia . All this investigations up to now led not to the application in industrial scale, besides the process using propane.Therefore it was decided to establish an own supercritical de-oiling process of liquid soy lecithin with carbon dioxide. The target product has to be a free flow powder with a minimum content of 95% of acetone insoluble matter. Laboratory scale test gave promising results and were later verified in a pilot plant. Scale up in a small scale production plant was performed to verify the results of the pilot tests. In each scale the target concentration of acetone insoluble matter were reached in a powder, which is free flowing. Part of the process development was an economic investigation to prove the feasibility the process in commercial scale.As the result of the development a production plant was established in 2007, which produces non-GMO-Lecithin.
New Process for Maximum Reduction of Gluconisolate in Rape Seed Extraction Meal without Damage of Proteins. Gunter Börner1, Gunter Fleck2, 1ÖHMI Engineering GmbH, Magdeburg, Saxony Anhalt, Germany, 2Pilot Pflanzenöltechnik Magdeburg e.V., Saxony Anhalt, Germany
A first overview is presented about the increase in processing of rape seed, which is mostly determined by a strong growing demand on biodiesel based on rape seed-oil at present. This development is accompanied by a significant bigger volume in production of rape- seed extraction meal, but the use for animal feed is limited because of still relatively high levels of anti-nutritive substances in the meal, mostly glucosinolates. The current situation of meal toasting is considered with respect to the relation of reduction of glucosinolates and the accompanied damage of proteins and negative influence on other animal feed properties of the meal.The market potential will be shown if we succeed to reduce the glucosinolates at a minimum level without damage of proteins. The first test results in feeding pigs and poultry demonstrate the important chance in increased market potential for such an improved rape seed extraction meal.The process is described to extract anti-nutritive substances from rape seed extraction meal based on the result of current development work.The respective processing plant is designed as an extension to running conventional extraction plants.
Maximizing Oil Recovery from Corn Fermentation By-Products. S. Majoni, T. Wang, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
Corn stillage contains more oil compared to the dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS), 18% vs 14% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of oil is found in the liquid fraction. Removal of the oil will improve feed quality and present an alternative source for biofuel production. The challenge is to find effective ways of removing the oil. Corn stillage appears to be a stable matrix and the proteins probably form strong protein-lipid interactions thereby making the oil difficult to extract by centrifugation alone. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of physical processes and enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from corn thick stillage. Enzymatic hydrolysis using proteases resulted in the greatest oil recovery of 76% compared to physical treatments, such as heating (55%), and pH changes (32%). Oil extraction from a model system containing zein, oil and soybean lecithin, showed that about 42% of oil was complexed by the protein zein. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein resulted in partial release of such bound oil. It can be concluded that the proteins, including zein probably form protein-lipid interactions, stabilizing the oil in the corn stillage and making the oil difficult to extract by centrifugation alone.
Aqueous Enzymatic Process for Simultaneous Extraction of Oil and Protein from Sunflower Seeds. Sajid Latif, Farooq Anwar, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture,, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
The use of enzymes in aqueous vegetable oilseed extraction for the simultaneous recovery of oil and high quality protein is fascinating. In the present work, four enzymes (Protex 7L, Alcalase, Viscozyme L and Natuzyme) were studied to evaluate their effects on the extraction of oil and protein from sunflower seeds. Preliminary experiments were conducted for the selection of optimum enzymes, enzyme concentration, incubation time and pH. Maximum oil yield (87.32% of the total oil in the seed) was observed with Viscozyme L, whereas, Protex 7L offered the highest level of protein (38.67% of the total protein) in the aqueous phase. The comparison of the quality attributes of enzyme-assisted aqueous extracted oil with that of solvent extracted and control revealed no significant (P > 0.05) variation in the contents of fatty acids, iodine value, density, refractive index and unsaponifiable matter within the extraction methods. Nevertheless, the aqueous and enzyme-assisted aqueous extracted oils exhibited better oxidation state as compared with that of solvent extracted. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the concentration of γ-tocopherol of enzyme-assisted aqueous extracted sunflower oil was also observed as compared with that of control and solvent extracted oils.
Design and Operation of a Fixed-Bed Palm Oil Biomass Gasification Technology for Producer Gas Production. Zulkifli Ab. Rahman1, Ku Halim Ku Hamid2, 1Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, 2Universiti Teknology MARA, Shah alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Palm oil mill biomass (empty fruit bunches) was converted to producer gas in an open core downdraft gasifier whose performance was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, producer gas composition, calorific value of producer gas, and gasification efficiency at different gasification temperatures.A downdraft biomass gasification system for palm oil mill biomass is designed with a capacity of 30kg/hr. The system consists of a gasifier and a gas purification system (including a cyclone separator, a venturi-wet scrubber and a dryer. It is found that the system can be operated stably within the temperature range from 700°C - 950°C. The biomass was initially pyrolyzed and the char produced was then partially gasified in the upper reduction region of the reactor and further, char residue was combusted at the bottom region of the reactor at the temperature above 700°C. This study indicated that under the optimum operating conditions, producer gas could be produced with a production rate of about 3.0 Nm3/kg biomass. The concentration of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane in the gas produced were 12.4%, 6.6% and 3.7%, respectively. The maximum gasification efficiency was found to be 75% at the gas flow rate of 90 m3 h-1 and gasifier temperature of 860°C.
Use of Oleochemical Additives for the Processing of Recycled Polyethylene. J.Y. Bergeron1, A. Rochette2, E. Leclair2, 1Oleotek Inc., Thetford Mines, QC, Canada, 2CTMP, Thetford Mines, QC, Canada
Throughout the world, a huge quantity of polyethylene raw materials is consumed in numerous uses. The effort to reduce, reuse and recycle the post-use polymers has become a challenging task to avoid both environmental impact and raw material consumption. The collected waste materials are reprocessed through melt extrusion at high temperature under air atmosphere.In the case of recycled waste HDPE, it is known that the extrusion leads to a process-induced material degradation which is attributed to long-chain branching caused by free radicals formation and crosslinking. Thus, it is advisable to restabilize the waste resin before reprocessing it. However, such a simple restabilization does not permit to obtain, at the outlet of the extruder, a resin suitable for processing by blow molding. In fact, the recycled resins usually show melt index values which are far too low to be sold and used as blow-mold grade resins.In an attempt to overcome performance degradation and to increase the value of the recycled resin, we developped a process of reactive extrusion of HDPE resin where the resin is simultaneously contacted with various oleochemical plasticizers and reacted with an oleochemical derivative able to inactivate the free radicals generated by the process. Structures and performance of the additives and the effects of various process parameters are presented and discussed.
Alternate Process for Synthesis of Azelaic and Pelargonic Acid. R. Bernier, J.Y. Bergeron, Oleotek Inc., Thetford Mines, QC, Canada
Azelaic acid (1,9-nonanedioic acid) and pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid), respectively di-acidic and acidic intermediaries with high value, are classically obtained by the ozonolysis of oleic acid. Supply for these two highly sought-after reagents is limited by the very few producers who have the capacity carry the ozonolysis at the industrial scale. The development of an alternate process of synthesis for these compounds would thus present unmistakable advantages. Simpler synthesis conditions would impact favourably on plant security and production cost.This presentation will review our approache to developing an oxidation process for oleic acid to obtain azelaic and pelargonic acid without using ozone. The many advantages of this new process will be presented. In particular, the much simpler reaction conditions and cheaper reagents definitely makes this process much cheaper and safer than the classical synthesis.
Improvement of the Oxidation Stability of Edible Oils and Biofuels by De-Oxygenation. Frank Pudel1, Mikkel Nordkvist2, 1PPM Pilot Pflanzenöltechnologie Magdeburg e.V., Magdeburg, Germany, 2ISO-MIX A/S, Ishøj, Denmark
The oxidation stability of edible fats and oils as well as vegetable fats and oils used as biofuels can be significantly improved by de-oxygenation using the rotary jet head system. The de-oxygenation process is performed by circulating oil from the bottom of a tank via a pump and re-injecting it into the bulk liquid through the nozzles of an ISO-MIX rotary jet head (RJH) mixer. The RJH is equipped with 4 nozzles which are rotating around two axes – driven by the inlet pressure of the fluid – in such a way that the liquid jets sweep the entire tank volume. Stripping gas in the form of e.g. nitrogen is added on the pressure side of the pump and distributed in the tank by the RJH which is responsible for breaking down bubbles and consequently given a larger specific surface area than would result if the gas was blown directly into the tank. The process design and results from lab scale and industrial tests will be presented. Oxygen levels below 0.5 ppm have been reached. Also, to sustain the low level of oxygen after processing it is important to inert the bottles, drums, etc. containing the de-oxygenated oil with e.g. nitrogen.
Ultra-Efficient Biodiesel Processing. John Massingill, Pulin Patel, Nathan Raemisch, Austin Shelton, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
Fiber Reactors (FR) will change the paradigm that two phase chemical reactions must use dispersions to be commercially effective. Fiber Reactors offer a potential step change in efficiency of chemical and biochemical manufacturing. This paper will focus on the transesterification reaction. Biodiesel plants convert fats/oils to biodiesel with many reactor stages and settling/centrifuge stages. Complexity is due to 1) poor mass transfer, 2) poor reaction conversion, and 3) the difficulty of phase separations in the presence of by-product soaps. Improving mass transfer and eliminating soap dispersions would reduce the cost of manufacturing biodiesel. In preliminary experiments, the FR is 10 to 100 times faster than reported biodiesel processes and extremely efficient- settling time and/or centrifuges are eliminated. The FR is an unconventional way to improve mass transfer limited catalytic reactions and phase separation problems in current base catalyzed biodiesel processes. Use of a Fiber Reactor will reduce complexity and size of a biodiesel plant, reduce energy consumption, and reduce water pollution by eliminating dispersions.
Chair(s): G. Hatfield, Bunge Canada, Canada; and T. Gum, Agribusiness & Water Tech Inc., USA
Processing of Neem by Mechanical Expression for Oil and Extraction of Limonoids.
J.M. Vargas-Lopez1, D. Wiesenborn2, K. Tostenson2, M.C. Miranda-Segura1, V. Durazo-Estrada1, 1Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, 2North Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering., Fargo, ND, USA
The neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) are fast-growing and drought-resistant, although is native to South East Asia is also grown in many subtropical regions throughout the world including United States and Mexico. Neem seed is and excellent source of high-limonoids oil. Limonoids, especially azadirachtin (AZA), have potential for use as pesticides because they inhibit molting, feeding and reproduction in arthropod insects. The neem-based insecticides has an important attention of large oleochemical industries. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid bench-scale procedure to obtain the oil from dried and ground whole or dehulled mixture seeds for limonoids extraction. A set of runs was performed using a Komet S87 screw oil expeller to determine a suitable combination of seed moisture content (6,8, and 10%) and whole or dehulled (50%) seeds. Oil extraction increased with decreasing seed moisture content (6%) and hull content (50%). The percentages of AZA-related limonoids in the neem seeds extracts were determined by HPLC, and the contents (18.5-23.9%) of different samples fell within the range reported in the literature. Considering the results obtained in this study, it is noticeable that the neem oil extract has higher amounts of AZA which has gained worldwide attention in view of the potential as ecofriendly pesticide.
Low trans in Partially Hydrogenated Fats by Using Microreactors.
Frank Pudel1, Matthias Rohrbeck1, Werner Bernd2, 1PPM Pilot Pflanzenöltechnologie Magdeburg e.V., Magdeburg, Germany, 2IMM Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz, Germany
Microreactors, characterized by microstructured reaction spaces, allow very short reaction times, high space-time yields as well as the use of top level catalyst materials. They promise to be an alternative technology to produce partial hydrogenated fats and oils with low trans content and high selectivity under non hazardous process conditions. The presentation describes lab scale investigations of the partial hydrogenation of rape seed oil using a special microreactor as well as resulting iodine value, trans fats, saturated fats and solid fat content in dependence on hydrogenation time, pressure and temperature.
Enzymatic Destabilization of Natural Occurring Soy Emulsion and Oil Quality.
D. Maurer, A. Mahfuz, L.A. Johnson, S. Jung, Iowa State University, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Ames, IA, USA
Soybean oil is traditionally extracted from the seeds by mechanical crushing and solvent extraction. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes is an environmentally friendly alternative, giving a similar oil extraction yield. During EAEP, about 30% of the oil is recovered as free oil while the remaining oil is partitioned into an oil-rich emulsion and a protein-rich emulsion called cream and skim, respectively. First, this study identified how the protease used during the extraction step impacted the stability of the cream towards demulsification. Second, the proteolytic demulsification process conditions of the cream obtained with EAEP of extruded full-fat soy flakes was optimized and the quality of the extracted oil determined. Concentrations of Protex 6L (0.03-2.5%, w/w), incubation times (2-90 min) and temperatures (25°C, 50°C, 65°C) were varied in order to increase free oil yield. The presence of free oil resulting from the EAEP process did not affect the demulsification step. The free oil resulting from the entire process consisted of about 84% of the total oil in the extruded full-fat soy flakes and contained less phosphorus and moisture/volatiles compared with conventional hexane extracted oil.
CLA Formation by Hydrogenation/Isomerization of Safflower Oil over Bifunctional and Bimetallic Novel Structured Catalyst.
Nasima Chorfa, Safia Hamoudi, Joseph Arul, Khaled Belkacemi, Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada
Directed isomerization of safflower oil under very low hydrogen partial pressure of 7 psi over novel bifunctional and bimetallic highly structured catalysts, having narrow pore size distribution ranging from 4 to 8 nm, and BET-specific surface of 710-1000 m2/g, was investigated as a new chemocatalytic approach to produce health-beneficial conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Evaluation of the effects of process conditions such as the reaction temperature, agitation speed, and catalyst to oil loading on the isomerization as well as partial hydrogenation activities will be presented. Time course profiles of cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11-; trans-9, trans-11-; trans-10, trans-12-; and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic isomers (CLAs) as well as trans-11, C18:1 (vaccenic acid) will be presented for the optimized catalyst under selected process conditions. The selectivity towards desired products such as cis-9, trans-11 C18:2-CLA, vaccenic acid, and cis-C18:1 will be discussed.
Partial Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oil using Catalytic Membranes: Effect of Membrane Flux, Membrane Selectivity, and Catalyst Loading.
D Singh, P.H. Pfromm, M.E. Rezac, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is used in margarines and fried food products. The conventional hydrogenation process used produces high amounts of trans fatty acids (TFA). FDA regulations require listing of the TFA content on food labels. The design of a commercial hydrogenation technology that produces minimum amounts of TFA becomes essential.The current technology used results in the catalyst surface being hydrogen starved and thus promotes isomerisation. In our approach, the multiple phase reactors currently employed are replaced by a catalytic membrane capable of selectively supplying hydrogen to the catalyst surface at the rate of consumption. Oil is pumped on one surface of the membrane where it comes into contact with the catalytic metal surface supported on the polymeric membrane support. The metal catalyst has a high hydrogen coverage achieved by diffusion through the membrane due to an imposed chemical potential driving force. High concentrations of hydrogen on the catalyst surface, and the resulting decrease in necessary temperature, promote the hydrogenation reaction at the expense of the unwanted cis to trans isomerization. The presentation will discuss the concept, the properties of the composite membranes and how these properties influence the hydrogenation.
Effect of Processing Conditions and Formulation on the Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.
Megan Tippetts, Silvana Martini, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
The destabilization mechanism of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions (20% and 40% o/w) was studied as a function of formulation, homogenization conditions, and crystallization temperature. A mixture of anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil was used as the lipid phase and a whey proteins isolate (2 wt %) solution as the emulsifier and aqueous phase. Crystallization and melting behaviors were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. Physicochemical stability was measured with a vertical scan macroscopic analyzer.Emulsions formulated with 20% oil were found to be less stable that the ones formulated with 40% oil. For 20% o/w emulsions, crystallization was delayed in emulsions with smaller droplets and promoted in emulsions with larger droplets in comparison with the 40% o/w emulsions. Depending on the droplet sizes in the emulsion, crystallization of lipid phase can result in a more or less stable emulsion.
Counter-Current CO2 Purification of Partially Deacylated Sunflower Oil.
F.J. Eller, S.L. Taylor, J.A. Laszlo, D.L. Compton, NCAUR, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL, USA
High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fractionation column was 1.2 m and separations were done at 25C and 11.0 MPa. Solvent to feed ratio (S:FR) (i.e., 7.5, 15, 30 & 60 g/g) and feed rate (FR) (i.e., 1, 2, 2.5, 3 & 4 mL/min) at constant S:FR of 15 were examined. Raffinate purity (i.e, glycerides) as well as extract purity (i.e., FAPEs) were both monitored. Percentage glycerides in both the raffinate and the extract increased with S:FR. The raffinate was ca. 83, 97, 100 and 100% glycerides at S:FRs of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60, respectively. The percentage glycerides in the extracts were ca. 3, 4, 8 and 17%, respectively. With a constant S:FR of 15, the raffinate purity peaked at ca. 99% glycerides with a FR of 2.5 mL/min and the extract at this FR contained ca. 96% FAPEs (i.e., ca. 4% glycerides).This demonstrates that L-CO2 effectively separates by-product FAPEs from product glycerides giving a raffinate of over 99% glycerides and a very pure extract (i.e., 96% FAPEs). In addition, this continuous separation is done at a temperature which minimizes potential chemical changes to the product.
Two-Stage Countercurrent Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Flaked and Extruded Soybeans as the Front-End of a Biorefinery.
Juliana Maria Leite Nóbrega de Moura, Neiva Maria de Almeida, Lawrence A. Johnson, Iowa State University, USA
Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) is an alternative to hexane extraction of soybean oil. Although considered a green technology, this process has a high water usage and produce significant amount of aqueous effluent (skim). In a standard EAEP highest oil and protein yields are achieved in a single extraction step using 1:10 solids-to-liquid ratio (extruded flakes/water). To reduce the amount of water used in the process, two-stage countercurrent EAEP was evaluated in the oil, protein and solids extraction of soybeans, using a solids-to-liquid ratio of 1:5 – 1:6 (extruded flakes/water). Reaction conditions were similar for both processes. The two-stage countercurrent EAEP yielded the same oil extraction as obtained in the standard EAEP (~ 96%) and more protein and solids extraction using only one-half of the water used in the standard process. Protein yields of 85 and 93% and solids yields of 77 and 83% were obtained using the standard EAEP and two-stage countercurrent EAEP, respectively. The recycling of the second skim obtained in two-stage countercurrent EAEP enables the use of enzyme, with or without inactivation, in the following extraction stage. Protein recovery with different degrees of hydrolysis can be achieved with the same extraction efficiency.
High Pressure Micronization of Fatty Acids Esters.
Z. Mandzuka, Z. Knez, University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Laboratory for Separation Processes and Product Design, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
In the PGSS micronisation process, a melt/liquid/suspension is saturated with supercritical fluid and subsequently expanded through a nozzle. Effect of process parameters on crystal form, degree of crystallinity, particle size, particle size distribution and morphology of tristearate was investigated. The experiments were performed at pressures between 65 and 215 bar and melt temperatures at 54, 60 and 70°C. Samples were characterized after the experiments and after 3 months of storage at room temperature. Results showed increase in amorphous phase. During storage, micronized samples re-crystallized. Particle size was measured. Agglomeration with time was more pronounced for particles produced at higher temperatures and pressures. Crystal form was determined with x-ray method. Results did not show a change in crystal form of tristerate (β′ form) before and after micronization, but slow transformation from β′ (less stable) form to β (more stable) form, occurred during storage. Last, morphology of powders was characterized with SEM. Micronized samples showed irregular and porous shape. The re-crystallization was evident with time, where needle-like crystals appeared on surface.
Boosting PUFA Levels in Fish and Other Oils by Enzymatic Processes.
W. Wang, C. Colin, J. Kralovec, Ocean Nutrition Canada Ltd, Halifax, NS, Canada
Lipases can be used to concentrate poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish or other oils due to their fatty acid selectivity. For example, some lipases show strong discrimination against PUFA during enzymatic hydrolysis. Such selectivity as well as the mild enzymatic reaction offers great advantages for processing fish and other stability-sensitive oils. The lipase-catalyzed processes are very useful, especially for fish oil which is rich in both saturated fatty acids like C16:0 and C18:0 and PUFA like EPA and DHA. In this work, lipases were tested for hydrolyzing different oils, PUFA distributions in glyceride and FFA portions during different hydrolysis stages were analyzed. DHA in tuna oil was increased from 23% to 41% with yield of 51%; while at 60% yield, EPA and DHA in anchovy oil were increased from18% and 13%, respectively, to 24% and 22%, respectively. Higher DHA products were also achieved at extended hydrolysis levels.
Optimization of Pilot Scale Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Rich Soy Oil by Photo-Isomerization.
V. Jain, A. Proctor, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AE, USA
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in dairy and beef products at levels of only 0.2-2% of the total fat. We have recently reported a simple photo-isomerization process to produce a 20% CLA rich-soy oil in presence of iodine catalyst. However, long irradiation time (144 h) has been a limitation of this process to be of practical value. The objectives of this research were to build a pilot plant scale processing unit to rapidly produce CLA rich-soy oil and to study the effect of processing parameters, such as iodine concentration, oil temperature, lamella thickness, and mode of irradiation on CLA yields. Soy oil was irradiated in a customized illuminated laminar flow unit (ILFU) consisting of two borosilicate glass plates in a silicone lined stainless steel frame. The static mode of operation yielded 5.7% total CLA isomers and performed twice as well than the continuous mode with 2.5% total CLA. Irradiating oil in a static mode with reflective surfaces increased the CLA yields three-fold to 16.4%. About 22% of total CLA isomers can be rapidly produced from soy oil linoleic acid with 0.35% iodine catalyst in a 0.5 cm thick oil layer maintained at 48°C for 12 h. The peroxide value and GC-MS analysis did not identify any volatile compounds characteristic of lipid oxidation.
Experiences with New Catalysts for Production of High-Quality Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats.
Thomas Hilber, Edgar Ahn, BDI - BioDiesel International AG, Grambach / Graz, Styria, Austria
Whereas traditional homogeneous catalysis in BioDiesel production offers a series of advantages, its major disadvantage is the fact that homogenous catalysts cannot be reused. Moreover, catalyst residues have to be removed from the ester product, usually necessitating several washing steps that increase production costs. Thus there have been various attempts at simplifying product purification by applying heterogeneous catalysts that can be recovered or are used in fixed-bed arrangements.So far most of the proposed catalysts show quick decrease in efficiency after reuse or are negatively affected by common impurities out of the oily feedstock, which makes feedstock purification necessary resulting in higher production costs compared with common alkaline catalyzed processes.BDI has successfully developed a new catalyst for the production of highest-quality Biodiesel which can be reused, avoids residues in the production phases and thus reduces production costs.Experiences from industrial scale application of this new catalyst will be presented.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels and Oxidation Properties of Soy Oil at Different Steps of Refining.
V. Jain, T. Tokle, S. Kelkar, A. Proctor, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been previously obtained by photo-isomerizing refined bleached deodorized (RBD) soy oil linoleic acid with an iodine catalyst with a pilot plant scale system. However, it is not known if RBD oil is the degree of processing that will produce optimum CLA levels. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the CLA levels and oxidation stability of soy oils obtained at different degrees of refining. Soy oils (crude, refined, refined – bleached, and RBD) were photo-isomerized in the pilot plant unit with 0.35% iodine at 47 C. CLA levels were analyzed by GC-FID. Oil samples were stored at 60 C and peroxide value, oil weight gain and volatiles by GC-MS determined during storage. CLA yields increased with refining, with 0.2% in crude oil, 6.4% in refined oil, 10.3% in refined, bleached oil, and 16.3% in RBD soy oil. Oils rich in carotenoids absorbed poorly in the UV range and corresponded with reduced CLA formation. Oxidation stability of the CLA oils was related to tocopherol and carotenoids levels, with oils with a lesser degree of processing being more stable.
Potential Medicinal Phytochemicals from Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L) Seed.
R.E. Harry-O'kuru, M. Busman, M. Berhow, USDA, ARS, NCAUR, Peoria, IL, USA
Senna obtusifolia L. occurs in the subtropical southeastern United States as a noxious weed in soybean and other food-crop fields. The plant is highly prolific with seed of highly colored low fat content. The main seed components are polysaccharides, proteins and non-food compounds found to exhibit potent medicinal characteristics. These properties give the plant great promise as a domestic source of novel pharmaceutical co-products if it is cultivated in its habitat. In a continuing effort to partition the ground seed into its medicinal components, the seed meal was solvent defatted; all extractions were performed in a large (3 L) Soxhlet. The defatted, dried meal was sequentially extracted with diethyl ether followed by removal of residual solvent, in vacuo from the meal; the dried material was then treated with dichloromethane followed after drying with 95% ethanol. Each extract was concentrated in vacuo to dryness to give the corresponding solute. This solvent sequence allowed separation of oil, phenolic aglycones, phenolic mono- and diglycosides, and their tetraglycosides, respectively, leaving the polysaccharides and protein components in the residue for other applications. Each group of isolates was spectroscopically characterized and identified.
Study of the Thermal Tanning of Rapeseed Meal by the Mean of a Bench-Cooker.
Alain Quinsac1, Patrick Carre2, Amélia Duretz2, Jacques Evrard1, Jean-Philippe Loison1, 1CETIOM, Pessac, France, 2CREOL, Pessac, france
The present study was focused on the thermal treatment of meal at the desolventisation step of the crushing process of rapeseed. The aim was to determine whether the heat and steam treatment is potentially efficient to reach a convenient level of protection of the proteins for ruminant feeding. Experiments were performed with specific equipment, a bench-cooker designed to contain 2 kg meal with a stirring device for a convenient homogenization. Different conditions of temperature, flow of steam and time of residence were applied and monitored on the tested material. Results showed that injection of live steam at atmospheric pressure has low effect on the protein solubility. In dry conditions, the required decrease of protein solubility was observed above 140°C. Injection of live steam was found efficient for increasing the temperature of the meal at the beginning of the process when cold, and in opposite, avoid the reaching of high temperature (150°C). Moreover, the experiment showed that the increasing of the residence time (more than 2 hours) with a temperature below 140°C was inefficient. These results were confirmed in a continuous flow desolventizer-toaster at 100 kg/h.
Neutralization and Degumming in a Fiber Reactor.
John Massingill, Pulin Patel, Austin Shelton, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
Neutralization of FFA in degummed oil using a fiber reactor has been highly effective. This paper reports results on degumming vegetable oil using a Fiber Reactor.
Enzymatic Alcoholysis of Milk Fat for the Production of Natural Flavor Esters.
M. Lubary1, J.H. ter Horst1, G. Hofland2, P.J . Jansens1, 1Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 2Feyecon Development and Implementation, Weesp, The Netherlands
Fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEE) are widely used as aromas, flavoring agents and emollients in fragrance and food industry. Especially short chain FAEE are valued flavor esters with fruity resemblance. Currently, FAEE are industrially produced via chemical synthesis, fermentation or extraction from plants. Chemically produced FAEE cannot be labeled as natural, while fermentation and extraction are costly processes due to low product concentrations. In this work, mixtures of FAEE were produced by enzymatic transesterification of milk fat triglycerides with ethanol. The performance of three commercial immobilized enzymes was studied in terms of activity and selectivity for short chain fatty acids. The studied reaction parameters were: enzyme load, ethanol to milk fat ratio and solvent medium, including solvent-free, hexane and carbon dioxide-expanded liquid fat (GXL). In general, ethanol was observed to inhibit enzyme activity. The presence of a solvent (hexane and carbon dioxide) lowered the reaction rate, but increased short-chain selectivity. The richest product in short and medium chain FAEE was obtained in GXL, at a moderate ethanol to fat ratio. Enzymatic alcoholysis of milk fat appears as an interesting way to prepare natural flavors suitable for food applications, using readily available raw materials.
Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Crude Cottonseed Oil.
Xiaohu Fan, Xi Wang, Feng Chen, Clemson University, USA
Biodiesel, known as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), was produced from crude cottonseed oil (triglyceride) by transesterification with methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide. This process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology combined with SAS program. The second-order model was obtained to predict conversions as a function of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and rate of mixing. Based on ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for the production of biodiesel with 100% conversion were found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 7.9; temperature, 53â„ƒ; time, 45min; catalyst concentration, 0.99%; and rate of mixing, 268rpm. The optimized conditions were examined to produce cottonseed oil biodiesel, and the results showed 97% of the yield, indicating the successfully developed model; Furthermore, the cottonseed oil biodiesel produced was characterized by the TLC, GC and HPLC. The analysis results confirmed the complete conversion of triglyceride in the crude cottonseed oil to biodiesel.