2008 Health and Nutrition
H&N 1: Obesity in the Developed and Developing World - Statistics and Potential Causes/Mechanisms: A Tribute to Mark Bieber, Colleague and Friend
Chair(s): C. Lammi-Keefe, Louisiana State University and Pennington Biomedical Research Center, USA; and J. Rozowski, Catholic University, Chile
Childhood Obesity in the US: Where Are We Today?. Nancy F. Krebs, University of Colorado Denver-School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA
Current national data indicate that 17-19% of children 6-19 yr of age are obese, and over one third are overweight. Substantial increases have also occurred in the prevalence of severe obesity, which is associated with sharply higher rates of co-morbidities. As highlighted by the Institute of Medicine document on childhood obesity, the etiology of this epidemic is the result of intersection of numerous sectors, including home and family, schools, community, and health care. The findings of an Expert Committee have recently been published as an evidence based review of recommendations for assessment, prevention, and treatment of child and adolescent obesity. A staged approach is recommended, in recognition that the range of age, severity, and medical co-morbidities necessitates strategies tailored to different needs and severity. Prevention strategies continue to be considered critical, since effective treatment of obesity in children is challenging. There is great need for research into most effective treatment approaches, which may range from lifestyle counseling, to strictly controlled diets and activity programs, to medications and surgery. Highlights of the Expert Committee report and an algorithm for systematic approach will be discussed.
Obesity in a Developing Country—How Did the Youth in Chile Become Obese?. J. Rozowski, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Chile has undergone an epidemiological and nutrition transition in the last 3 decades which has included several changes and programs that have successfully reduced infant mortality and morbidity from malnutrition and infectious diseases. Concomitant with this decrease we have seen an increase in the chronic diseases including obesity, itself a disease and a conditioning factor for other diseases.The reasons for the increase in the prevalence of obesity, reaching 20% in men and 29% in women, are multiple. They include a change in the diet of the population and a decrease in physical activity, almost non-existent in adults, and, more importantly, in children. Data shows that Chilean children spend between 3 and 5 hours a day sitting in front of a screen (TV, computer or video game). An explanation for this is the lack of security in open areas perceived by parents in the lower socioeconomic groups.The nutritional and social aspects of obesity in Chile will be discussed and the transition will be compared with other countries in South America at different stages in development.Finally, the characteristics of current programs in the country which have been successful in the short-term will be discussed and their application in the long-term will be evaluated.
How the Gut Signals the Brain to Influence Food Intake and Weight Gain. M.J. Keenan1, R.J. Martin1,2, R.T. Tulley1, J. Zhou2, 1LSU AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 2Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
Obesity is increasing. Gut signaling to brain plays a role in food intake and weight. Study of two hormones has grown. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are known for reduced intake when injected; and are of great interest to industry. They are secreted from the distal gut. With gastric bypass the small bowel is shortened and more food reaches the distal gut. PYY and GLP-1 increase with this surgery and improve type 2 diabetes and weight loss. This is good for very obese, but not for most people. Another approach is to increase the amount of non-digestible, fermentable components in the diet. This is a more natural approach as endogenous levels are increased without the risk of surgery and side effects of drugs. There is parallel research with resistant starches and oligofructoses. Our research group studies resistant starches. Reduced body fat in rodents with feeding of resistant starch is associated with increased gene expression and plasma levels for PYY and GLP-1. Other observations are increased proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus without decreased gene expression of neuropeptide Y and Agouti related protein. These results agree with observations of similar energy intakes, but increased energy expenditure for rodents fed resistant starch versus control diets.
The Relationship of SNP 276G>T at Adiponectin Gene with Insulin Resistance and Plasma Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Lcpufas) In Obese Children. Marcello Giovannini, Elvira Verduci, Silvia Scaglioni, Elisabetta Salvatici, Enrica Riva, Carlo Agostoni, Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Aim: To examine the association of SNP 276G>T with insulin resistance and plasma LCPUFAs in obese children. Methods: Ninety three obese children aged 8-13 years entered the study. Obesity was defined according to IOTF. Fasting insulin and plasma fatty acids were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR. Results: The prevalence of T allele carriers at SNP276 was 49.5%. Mean [SD] values of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in GG homozygotes vs carriers of T allele were: 12.2 [6.4] vs 18.5 [7.3] mU/ml (P=0.061) and 2.6 [1.4] vs 4.0 [1.7] (P=0.045). Mean [SD] values of plasma n-3 LCPUFA, C18:3n-3, n-6/n-3 LCPUFA and C22:6n-3/C20:4n-6 in phospholipds in GG homozygotes vs carriers of T allele were: 3.0 [0.6] vs 2.7 [0.9] % (P=0.080), 0.10 [0.04] vs 0.08 [0.03] % (P=0.014), 4.4 [0.7] vs 5.0 [0.9] % (P=0.003), 0.24 [0.06] vs 0.22 [0.06] % (P=0.083). A multiple logistic regression model showed that HOMA-IR (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.77), monounsaturated FA (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.87) and phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.63-7.10) were independently associated with SNP276 G>T. Conclusions: In obese children SNP 276G>T may be independently associated with higher insulin resistance and higher levels of n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio in plasma phospholipids.
Food Intake Control: Neuronal Molecular Signals Generated by Nutrients. R.J. Martin1,2, J. Zhou2, L. Shen1, M. Keenan1, C. Morrison2, 1Louisisana State University AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 2Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
Our overall goal is to determine how macronutrients (carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids) signal neuronal gene expression to impact energy balance and food intake. One of the neuronal signaling pathways that we studied is associated with low energy status and involves neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related peptide (AGRP). Both of these peptides are powerful simulators of food intake. We have shown both in vivo and in neuronal cell lines that low nutrient energy status induces NPY and AGRP expression and that high carbohydrate, amino acids or fatty acids suppresses the expression of AGRP through AMPkinase mechanisms. In these studies, "starved" cells are fed normal levels of glucose and amino acids for 1 hour before harvesting the cells. Under these conditions, the transcription factor, carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) level was enhanced in the refed neuronal cells. It is proposed that ChREBP is involved in the glucose suppression of AGRP expression in the brain. Also we have found that mTOR mechanisms are involved in amino acid suppression of AGRP and of feeding behavior. Fatty acid signally mechanisms of neuropeptides are less well understood and may depend on chain length and structure.
Breakfast: A Good Habit for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity. Marcello Giovannini, Elvira Verduci, Silvia Scaglioni, Elisabetta Salvatici, Marco Sala, Enrica Riva, Carlo Agostoni, Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Increasing evidence is showing short- and long term benefits of daily consuming an adequate breakfast in children. Recent reports point out that: 1. Having regular breakfast enhances calcium and micronutrient intakes and status. 2. Most studies of giving breakfast have found benefits to school performance. 3. Normal weight children who never eat breakfast gain weight relative to peers who regularly eat breakfast. Higher energy intakes through the rest of the day and impairments in postprandial insulin sensitivity in those who omit breakfast represent plausible explanations. 4. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity is found among children who do not consume breakfast, particularly in families from low socio-economic status. Then, breakfast consumption is highly recommended in childhood. Within this context, also the type of breakfast eaten may have different metabolic effects. Since a high-glycemic index breakfast is associated with higher lunch intakes, low-glycemic index foods are recommended as further regulators of food intake. Therefore, breakfast should include a variety of milk or milk-derived products, different energy sources mainly represented by slowly-released carbohydrates and micronutrients relevant to growth and health.
H&N 2: Carbohydrate Restriction: Implications for Dietary Fat and Protein
Chair(s): P.J. Huth, PJH Nutritional Sciences, USA; and S. Zaripheh, Dairy Management Inc., USA
Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction Induces a Unique Metabolic State Positively Affecting Atherogenic Dyslipidemia, Fatty Acid Partitioning, and Metabolic Syndrome. J. Volek, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and dyslipidemia play an intimate role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and CVD. From a regulatory standpoint, the availability of glucose and insulin predominate as upstream regulatory elements that operate through a collection of transcription factors that partition lipids toward anabolic pathways. The role of dietary input, specifically carbohydrate intake, as a mechanism of metabolic regulation germane to metabolic syndrome will be overviewed. The key principle is that carbohydrate, directly or indirectly through the effect of insulin, controls the disposition of excess dietary nutrients, modulates lipolysis, lipoprotein assembly, and metabolic processing of fatty acids. For example, dietary carbohydrate affects the relation between dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake and plasma SFA content, and has profound effects on arachidonic metabolism and inflammatory processes. We see the need to integrate cellular mechanisms with results from low carbohydrate diet trials that have shown reduced cardiovascular risk factors. Low carbohydrate diets are grounded in basic metabolic principles and the data suggest that some form of carbohydrate restriction is a candidate to be the preferred dietary strategy for cardiovascular health beyond weight regulation.
Improvements in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance with Substitution of Fat and Protein for Dietary Carbohydrate. R.M. Krauss, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA
Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) contribute to the increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with excess adiposity. Whereas reduction in body fat is known to ameliorate these metabolic abnormalities, the effects of altering dietary macronutrient composition without weight loss are less well understood. We have shown that substitution of protein and fat for carbohydrate (carb) in isocaloric diets to achieve lower carb content results in reductions in multiple components of atherogenic dyslipidemia: triglyceride, small dense LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio, and apoB. The improvements were similar with saturated fat intakes of 15% vs. 7% of total calories, consistent with evidence that saturated fat specifically increases levels of larger LDL particles, and that large LDL are not characteristically elevated in the atherogenic dyslipidemia of obesity and IR. We also found that in subjects with relative IR (highest 1/3 of HOMA-IR), high protein intake (29% of calories) was associated with a significant reduction in HOMA-IR, independent of dietary fat and carb content. These findings are consistent with growing evidence that lower carb, higher protein diets are associated with reduced CVD risk, and that this risk is not independently related to saturated fat intake.
How Humans Adapt to Low Carbohydrate Diets. S. Phinney, UC Davis (emeritus), Davis, CA, USA
Low carb diets (LCD) have been a mainstay of human survival for those of our ancestors who lived independent of agriculture. Whether by choice or necessity, humans can adapt to diets virtually devoid of carbs, but it takes a few weeks to recover ones full function via an energy economy based upon fat. It is a misconception that a LCD is necessarily high in protein. Aboriginal cultures based on hunting and fishing appreciated fat as their preferred energy source. Some North American hunting cultures derived 75-85% of their energy from fat, 15-25% from protein, with <5% carbs from nuts and berries. When eating a LCD, the optimum fat composition understandably differs from that during a high carb diet. While EFA needs would require their high proportion when consuming 10% of energy as fat, such EFA-rich fat sources would not necessarily be desirable when consuming an order of magnitude more fat. Interestingly, aboriginal hunting cultures learned not only to value dietary fat, but they also developed highly evolved fat preferences (e.g., the extensive consumption and commodity trading of ooligan grease along the North Pacific coast). Thus, a healthy and sustainable LCD is not just our current agriculture-based diet with the carbs removed. Moderation in dietary protein and close attention to the composition of dietary fat are key learnings from both cultural history and recent research.
Protein Intake Modulates Lean Mass Changes in Older Adults: Implications for the Prevention of Sarcopenia. Stephen Kritchevsky, Denise Houston, Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) is associated with physical disability and metabolic impairments in older adults. We examined the effect of dietary protein intake on changes in appendicular lean mass (aLM) in 2,066 Health Aging and Body Composition Study participants. Protein intake was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. Lean mass was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression was used to examine the association between baseline dietary protein intake and 3-year change in aLM after adjustment for multiple covariates. Mean protein intake was 0.91 g/kg of body weight /day (SD=0.39) in men and women. Mean change in aLM was -618.2 gm (SD=1182.7) in men and -358.4 gm (SD=964.1) in women. Energy-adjusted protein intake was associated with three-year change in aLM (β(SE)5.31 (1.64), p=0.001). Participants in the highest quintile of protein intake lost approximately 40% less aLM compared to those in the lowest quintile of protein intake (Mean (SE): -0.661 (0.057) kg vs. -0.400 (0.058) kg for aLM; p for trend <0.01). The association was seen in both those losing and gaining weight, and was largely independent of changes in fat mass. Dietary protein may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia and should be studied to determine its effect on preserving lean mass.
A Modern Traditional Canadian First Nations Diet. J. Wortman, Health Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada
H&N 3: Tocotrienols in Health
Chair(s): R. Watson, University of Arizona, USA; and J. Cassista, National Health Research Institute, USA
Vitamin E in Neuroprotection: The Tocotrienol Advantage. C.K. Sen, The Ohio State University Medical Center, USA
Vitamin E Supplementation, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease. I. Jialal, S. Devaraj, University of California Davis Medical College, Davis, CA, USA
There has been much conflict in literature with regards to the benefit of Vitamin E therapy in the reduction of Cardiovascular Disease. However, as we have pointed out previously, many of these trials had many pitfalls including the study population, the dose and form of Vitamin E, the failure to measure biomarkers, etc. In a recently published study, we showed that RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation at 1200 IU/day for two years versus placebo in 90 patients with Coronary Artery Disease resulted in a significant increase in alpha-tocopherol levels and a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels (32%) and F2-isoprostanes (37%). While there was a significant progression in carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in the placebo group, there was no progression in carotid IMT in the Vitamin E group. Furthermore, there was a non-significant 43% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular events in the alpha-tocopherol group versus the placebo. Furthermore, over this two year period the safety of high dose alpha-tocopherol supplementation was established. Since it has previously been shown that alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreases plasma gamma-tocopherol levels and that gamma-tocopherol has anti-inflammatory effects as it is a potent inhibitor of nitrative stress, we tested the effect of combined supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (800 IU/day) and gamma-tocopherol (800 mg/day) versus either alone in a placebo controlled study in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. In this study, we showed that the combination of alpha-tocopherol (AT) and gamma-tocopherol (GT) was superior to either alone in reducing hs-CRP levels and nitrotyrosine levels. Thus, based on these two studies and the published literature, we suggest that there should be an urgency in conducting well planned multi-centered clinical trials testing this combination on cardiovascular endpoints.
New forms of Vitamin E Gamma-Tocopherol and Vitamin E Phosphate. S. Devaraj, Univerity of California, Davis Medical college, USA
Vitamin E Forms: Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Potential Use in Treatment of Asthma. Q. Jiang, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Vitamin E is a generic term of eight lipophilic antioxidants, which include alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. Studies on vitamin E have traditionally focused on alpha-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in tissues. Recent studies by us and others strongly suggest that other forms of vitamin E possess properties which are not shared by alpha-tocopherol but important to human disease prevention and therapy. We have found that gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, has anti-inflammatory properties by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 in cell-based studies and in a rat inflammation model. Some vitamin E forms inhibited leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4 from stimulated neutrophils and eosinophils, respectively. We recently showed that gamma-tocopherol inhibits airway allergic inflammation and rhinitis in rodent models. This talk will review the anti-inflammatory activities and mechanisms of different forms of vitamin E, and discuss the implications including potential use in treatment of asthma.
Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Tocotrienols on Normal and Neoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells. P. Sylvester, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA
Vitamin E is a generic term that refers to a family of compounds that is further divided into two subgroups called tocopherols and tocotrienols. All natural forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols are potent antioxidants that regulate peroxidation reactions and controls free-radical production within the body. However, it is now firmly established that many of the biological actions mediated by individual vitamin E isoforms are not dependent upon their antioxidant activity. One of the most intriguing therapeutic applications for natural vitamin E, particularly tocotrienols, currently being investigated is their use as anticancer agents. Specific tocotrienol isoforms display potent antiproliferative and apoptotic activity against a wide range of cancer cell types, while having little or no effect on normal cell function or viability. Experimental studies have also determined that the intracellular mechanism mediating the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocotrienols in normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells. Additional studies have also shown that tocotrienol treatment can restore death receptor apoptotic signaling in tumor cells that contain nonfunctional death receptors. These findings strongly suggest that tocotrienols may be used effectively as anticancer therapy to enhanced the therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity of other anticancer agents.
H&N 4: High Stearate Fats: Opportunities for Food Product Formulation
Chair(s): S. Poole, United Soybean Board, USA
A Scientific Literature Review on the Potential Health Effects of Increased Dietary Stearic Acid. J.E. Hunter, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
This presentation reviews scientific literature on the health effects of increased dietary stearic acid. Of particular interest are the effects of increased intake of stearic acid that would result if stearic acid largely replaced trans fatty acids in the diet. Controlled trials consistently have found stearic acid from natural or interesterified sources to have neutral effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and most hemostatic factors compared to other long-chain saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and carbohydrates. Fibrinogen levels have been reported to be adversely affected in three studies but not in three others following consumption of high stearate diets. Regarding replacement of trans fatty acids by stearic acid, we have estimated that reasonable substitution of stearic acid for trans fatty acids (one-to-one on an energy basis) in the U.S. diet might increase intake of stearic acid from the current 2.9% to around 4% of energy. A limited number of studies which permit assessment of the substitution of stearic acid (7%-9% of energy) for trans fatty acids (7%-8% of energy) have shown no evidence of adverse effects. We conclude that dietary stearic acid at current levels is safe and that reasonable replacement of trans fatty acids in foods by stearic acid would not result in serious adverse health effects.
Considerations for Utilizing Stearic-Based Fats as a Replacement for Trans Fatty Acids. B. Flickinger, Archer Daniels Midland Research, Decatur, IL, USA
Fats and oils are used to prepare and create many foods. Fats and oils serve as media to create lubricity, transfer heat, provide structure and deliver flavor. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) provided these criteria in place of saturated fat sources as well as greater flexibility for use in foods and its production. With food products being reformulated to replace PHVO containing trans fat, fats and oils with equal functional and taste properties are being used or developed. Food products which utilize solid or semi-solid fats remain a challenge for food formulators. Different food products utilize different solid fat functionality and even the same food product may utilize different solid fat functionality based on manufacturer's formulations. Stearic-based fats are one potential replacement for PHVO containing trans fats. Considerations and examples for developing, creating and utilizing stearic-based fats will be discussed.
Potential Implications of Stearic Acid for Confections. A. Bodor, National Confectioners Association, Vienna, VA, USA
Because approximately one-third of the saturated fat content of chocolate comes from stearic acid, the potential impacts of stearic acid research on the chocolate and confections industry is significant. Alison Bodor, Vice President of Regulatory Affairs for the National Confectioners Association, will discuss the product development, labeling and consumer implications from the perspective of the confectionery industry.
Product Labeling Implications for Dietary Fats & Fatty Acids. R. Earl, Grocery Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC, USA
Evolving information about dietary fatty acids and health prompts the question, "What to do about product formulation and nutrition labeling?" In the midst of FDA considering revisions to nutrition labeling and the upcoming 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, this session will explore implications for food product formulation, food labeling policy, and potential consumer benefit of revised or additional information. Topics will include cover current labeling requirements (FDA & USDA), upcoming changes to nutrition labeling, implications for stearic acid and other fatty acids, and compliance issues.
H&N 4.1: General Health and Nutrition I
Chair(s): E. Bailey-Hall, Martek Biosciences, USA; and D. Bibus, University of Minnesota, USA
Trans Fat Monitoring Program of Health Canada: Overview of Results for 2005-07. W.M.N. Ratnayake, M.R. L'Abbé, S. Farnworth, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Between 2005 and 2007, Health Canada performed a national assessment of prepackaged and restaurant foods that likely contain trans fat (TFA). A total of 354 samples were analysed for total fat, TFA and other fatty acids. Of the 29 margarines analysed in 2005, 15 (52%) contained TFA less than 2% of total fat. On initial assessments of cookies and crackers in 2005, 44% of samples analysed contained less than 5% TFA and in subsequent assessments in 2006, the percentage of samples with less than 5% TFA increased to 80%. Reductions in TFA levels were also seen in fast foods from major restaurant chains in Canada. From 2006 to 2007, the percentage of fast food samples with less than 5% TFA increased from 48% to 71%. In particular, the TFA levels were decreased in french fries, fried chicken, fried fish products and onion rings. As a result of re-formulation, most of the products had decreased TFA + saturated fat content and except donuts, crackers and cookies, increased cis-unsaturated fat levels. Our findings indicate that some manufacturers and restaurants have taken the opportunity not only to reduce the TFA content but also to increase the content of cis unsaturated fats, which may provide additional health benefits beyond those already due to lower TFA content.
Influence of Chemical or Enzymatic Interesterification of a Stearic Acid-Rich Spread on Plasma Triacylglycerol Concentration and Fatty Acid Composition. D. Robinson1, A. Marangoni2, L. Ahmadi2, L. Robinson1, A. Wright1, 1Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 2Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
While chemical and enzymatic interesterification are gaining popularity for production of trans fatty acid-free spreads and shortenings, an understanding of their influence on human metabolism does not yet exist. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study was undertaken to compare the effect of three spreads on postprandial lipemia in lean and obese subjects. Treatments consisted of a 70/30 physical blend (PB) of high oleic sunflower oil and canola stearin, and the same blend either chemically (CIE) or enzymatically interesterified (EIE). Subjects consumed 1g fat/kg body mass with 50g of available carbohydrate. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level and fatty acid (FA) composition were determined over 6 h. There were no differences in postprandial TAG between treatments in the lean subjects. While obese subjects had an exaggerated TAG response to CIE versus PB (P<0.05), neither PB nor CIE differed from EIE. Serum oleic acid concentration increased in both lean and obese groups following ingestion of PB, while increases in both stearic and oleic acids were observed for CIE and EIE. Overall, lean and obese subjects responded differently to ingestion of a stearic acid-rich spread, although the differences between CIE and EIE were not striking in either group.
Sensory Comparison of Doughnuts Fried in trans Fat-Free Shortening to Those Fried in Shortening Containing trans Fats Shortening. Peter Bordi1, Linsen Liu2, Danielle Hack1, 1Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, 2Cargill, Wayzata, MN, USA
trans fats have been shown to increase the risk for heart disease and related comorbidities. Food companies face the challenge of creating or refining products that meet the sensory demands of consumers who are as concerned with good taste as they are good health. Utilizing the expertise of the Center for Food Innovation (CFI), one particular northeastern U.S. grocery store chain was interested in evaluating the sensory differences of glazed yeast doughnut rings which were fried using a trans fat-free per serving shortening with those fried using shortening currently used by the grocery store chain which contained trans fats. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of the doughnut fried in trans fat-free shortening compared to the doughnut fried in shortening containing trans fats.METHODOLOGYOnly significant difference indicated was for the moisture content of the trans fat-free per serving doughnut; no significant differences were found between the samples in terms of appearance, taste, texture, overall liking, color and sweetness. Furthermore, a majority of the panelists indicated a preference for the trans fat-free doughnut.
Effect of Vitamin E and Polymorphisms at Cytokine Genes on Cytokine Production and Respiratory Infection in Elderly Nursing Home Residents. S.E. Belisle1, J. Delgado-Lista 2, G.E. Dallal1, L.S. Leka1, B.C. Fine3, D.H. Hamer4,1, P.F. Jacques1, J.M. Ordovas1, S.N. Meydani1,5, 1Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA, 2Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, CIBER, Fisiopatologia, Obesidad y Nutricion, Cordoba, Spain, 3Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA, USA, 4Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine, Boston, MA, USA, 5Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
Vitamin E (E) is a fat soluble nutrient, which supports wellness. Supplemental E is shown to improve immune response in the aged partly by changing cytokine response. This improvement is associated with improved resistance to infection and lower rates of some respiratory infections (RI). However, human studies show individual immune response to E supplementation is heterogeneous. We examined if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at cytokine genes influence response to E supplementation. We hypothesize that a discrete set of SNPs contributes to RI in the aged and that E supplementation's effect on immune response is modulated by these SNPs. Data from a 1-yr randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled study examining the effect of E supplementation on RIs in nursing home residents were used to test this hypothesis. E-SNP interactions were assessed with regression models fitted with E and SNPs as primary explanatory factors and adjusted for confounders. Analyses indicated E-gene interactions influencing cytokine production and RI. Understanding genetic influences on individual response to E will improve strategies to reduce RI risk in the elderly. Understanding the response to E will aid development of recommendations for E supplementation in elderly subpopulations that may benefit the most from consumption.
H&N 5: General Health and Nutrition II
Chair(s): E. Bailey-Hall, Martek Biosciences, USA; and D. Bibus, University of Minnesota, USA
Biological Availability of Newly Found Two Kinds of Tocomonoenols in Mouse. N. Gotoh1, H. Watanabe2, D. Mashimo1, T. Oka1, N. Doisaki3, S. Wada1, 1Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 2Kochi Women's University, Kochi, Kochi, Japan, 3Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
Biological availability of two kinds of newly found tocomonoenols, marine-derived tocopherol (MDT), and α-tocomonoenol, were investigated with ICR mice. Vitamin E deficient ICR mice were fed MDT and α-tocomonoenol together with α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol and their storage in liver, spleen, lung, and brain were quantified with reverse phase HPLC system. As the results, vitamin E relative biological availability (VE-RBA) for α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, MDT, and α-tocomonoenol obtained from liver were 100, 26.24±2.53, 3.77±1.53, Not Detected, 48.75±6.39, and 30.39±6.83, respectively. On the other hand, the value for α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, MDT, and α-tocomonoenol obtained from brain were 100, 5.05±1.58, Not Detected, Not Detected, 7.77±1.09, and 3.50±0.58, respectively. The accumulation of tocopherols and tocomonoenols were not observed in spleen and lung. VE-RBA for MDT and α-tocomonoenol indicated fairly high value. Particularly, VE-RBA for MDT showed higher value than that for β-tocopherol. These results would indicate that MDT has high affinity against α-tocopherol transfer protein compared to β-tocopherol.
Synthesis of Phenolic Lipids by Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity. W.S. Choo, E.J. Birch, Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
This study involved the determination of antioxidant capacity of phenolic lipids formed by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids using an immobilized lipase from Candida Antarctica. Cinnamic acid has the parent phenolic structure of the phenyl propanoids or cinnamic acid derivatives group of known antioxidants. Although cinnamic acid has limited antioxidative capacity, one study has shown that esterification of the carboxyl group of cinnamic acid resulted in a significant increase of radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid (present naturally in flaxseeds) is a cinnamic acid derivative with known antioxidant activity. Mono-substituted and disubstituted derivatives were obtained. Their separation and identification was carried out by preparative HPLC and analyzed by ESI-MS. Radical scavenging activity of the synthesis products were determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method. These results serve as model systems for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of products from enzymatic transesterification of phenolic acids with highly unsaturated oils such as flaxseed oil where their natural phenolic acids content may give enhanced antioxidant protection.
The Importance of Α-Linolenic Acid in the Development of Lepidopteran Insects. B. Sørensen1, M. Wenzler2, G. Howe3, D. Heckel1, S. Preiss1, 1Department of Entomology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany, 2Biosynthesis/NMR Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
We wish to determine: 1) the physiological importance of α-linolenic acid in the development of lepidopterans (butterflies and moths), 2) the absolute amounts required, and 3) why some species (i.e. Heliothis subflexa) appear not to have a dietary requirement. Fluorolinolenic acid was prepared from thyme seed oil and fed to larvae. Whole larvae and extracts were analyzed using 19F NMR. The signal was too diffuse for localization and differed from the starting material, suggesting further metabolization. Larvae fed 14C labeled linolenic acid were embedded and sectioned, and lipids were extracted and separated via TLC. The radiolabel appeared to be concentrated in phospholipids in the skin. Comprehensive analysis via GC will reveal the exact fatty acid composition of the various lipids. Helicoverpa armigera larvae were raised on tomato leaves with normal and reduced amounts of α-linolenic acid. The growth rates of larvae on linolenic acid deficient leaves, as well as pupal weights, were significantly lower than those raised on normal leaves. To assay for Δ-15 desaturase activity, microsomes from H. subflexa larvae were incubated with 13C labeled linoleoyl-CoA. Labeled linolenic acid was, however, not observed. A greater understanding of their α-linolenic acid requirements may assist in developing strategies to control these agricultural pests.
The Effects of Trans and Conjugated LC N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Lipid Metabolism and Abdominal Fat Weight in Rats. T. Okada, R. Noguchi, M. Hosokawa, K. Miyashita, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Japan
Trans and conjugated fatty acids may exhibit either beneficial or detrimental bioactive effects depending on their metabolic properties. A study was conducted to elucidate if isomerization and conjugation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) demonstrates more favorable bioactivity on lipid metabolism compared to unmodified EPA and DHA. The effects of dietary intake of trans and conjugated forms of EPA and DHA on lipid metabolism were evaluated compared to a control group fed soybean oil. None of the experimental diets showed significant differences from the control in terms of body weight; however, the white adipose tissue weight of rodents fed trans DHA, conjugated EPA (CEPA) and conjugated DHA (CDHA) was significantly lower than the control. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly decreased in groups fed trans DHA (17.2 mg/dl) and CDHA (31.9 mg/dl) relative to the control (51.3 mg/dl). The total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than the control (68.0 mg/dl) in all experimental groups (47.3-53.7 mg/dl) except CEPA (58.3 mg/dl). Overall, the conjugated and trans forms of EPA and DHA showed encouraging antiobesity effects, with no harmful health effects observed.
Utilization of Pomegranate Seed Cold Press Mill for Production of Low Fat Baked Products. F. Madadnoee1,2, M.R. Modalal1,2, F. Karami1,2, A. Madadi-Noei3, F. Mohseni4, 1Agri-Industry & Veg. Oil of Mahidasht (A.I V. O. M. Co.), Kermanshah, Iran, 2Kesht Va Sanat Shomal(KVSS), Sari, Iran, 3The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 4Amol Klooche, cookies manufacture, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran
Pomegranate seed mill contains minerals, antioxidants, vitamin B and C. It is a great source of potassium and punicic acid with 18 carbon and three double bond (9c,11t,13c). We studied the effect of using cold pressed pomegranate seed mill in the production of low fat baked products. We prepared a blend of beef tallow and canola with specification of: SMP 34C, SFA 16.1%, MUFA 57.1%, PUFA21.9% and others 4.9. 2% lecithin and 0.2% monoglyceride added to the fat. The general formula of baked product was: Wheat flour 37.6%, sugar 20.7%, egg 10.3%, fat 13.2%, water 14%, baking powder 1.9%, sorbitol 1.9%, monoglyceride 0.2% and flavor 0.2 %.Cold pressed pomegranate seed mill was grounded and passed through 50 mesh sieves. Fifty percent of wheat flour in the formula was replaced with seed mill and fat consumption reduced to 50%. All other ingredients were not changed. The specification of the baked product is listed below:Weight 65 grams Moisture 17.3%, fat 14% (on dry basis), protein 8.6%. FAC of extracted oil was: SFA 18.9, MUFA 38.2, PUFA 24.7 TRANS 0.5, PUNICIC ACID 14.8 (1.1 g in a cake) and others 2.9. The pomegranate seed mill produced a chocolate like taste and appearance in the product. Result of sensory and stability studies showed that the product was superior to both market product and product made by our pure vegetable oil shortening.
Formulation of Trans Free, Low Saturated Blend of Beef Tallow and Liquid Oils for Production of Ghee, Margarine and Shortening. F. Madadnoee1,2, M.R. Modalal1,2, F. Karami1,2, F. Mohseni3, 1Agri-Industry & Veg. Oil of Mahidasht, Kermanshah, Iran, 2Kesht Va Sanat Shomal(KVSS), Sari, Iran, 3Amol Klooche, cookies manufacture, Amol, Mazandaran, Iran
Nutrition and health effect of both interesterified products and blended products using palm oil fractions and fully hydrogenated oil are becoming controversial.We formulated trans free products by blending different percentages of batch refined, bleached and deodorized beef tallow and liquid oils.For formulation of ghee with beef tallow and canola, depending on season and location we prepared three types of products with following specifications:SMP SFA MUFA PUFA OTHERS34C 16.1 57.1 21.9 4.937C 18.5 55.7 21 4.838C 20.8 54 19.5 5.7The products had lower SFA compared to the trans free pure vegetable oil. Also results of sensory evaluation showed a better taste and texture.For formulation of industrial shortening and margarine, we prepared three following products: a margarine, b and c shortening. SFA MUFA PUFA OTHERSa 18.1 40.3 37.8 3.8 b 19.3 52.2 24.4 4.1c 25.4 51.3 17.4 5.9
Health and Nutrition Posters
Chair(s): C. Lammi-Keefe, Louisiana State University and Pennington Biomedical Research Center, USA
Dietary N-6 PUFA Deprivation in Rats Post-Weaning Reduces AA Concentrations in Plasma and Multiple Organs, but Reciprocally Increases N-3 PUFA Concentrations.
M. Igarashi, F. Gao, K. Ma, J.M. Bell, S.I. Rapoport, Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, NIA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), an n-6 PUFA, regulates tissue function and structure. We wished to see if dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation affected AA or other PUFA concentrations in rats. Rats at weaning were fed n-6 PUFA adequate or deficient diets for 15 weeks. The adequate diet contained hydrogenated coconut oil (6g/100g), safflower oil (3.2g/100g) and flaxseed oil (0.8g/100g); the deficient diet contained hydrogenated coconut oil (8.7g/100g), flaxseed oil (0.8g/100g), and olive oil (0.5g/100g). The adequate diet contained 52.1 μmol linoleic acid (LA)/100g (27.6% of total FA), and the deficient diet contained 4.2 μmol LA/100g (2.3%). Both contained 8.7 μmol α-linolenic acid/100g (4.7%). The deficient compared with adequate diet did not affect whole body weight, but decreased testis weight. It decreased AA concentrations in plasma (-86%), brain (-27%), liver (-68%), heart (-39%), and testis (-25%), but increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in these tissues. It also decreased TG, T-Chol and T-PL concentrations in plasma. In summary, AA concentrations can be significantly reduced by n-6 PUFA deprivation for 15weeks in plasma and organs of rats. These AA reductions are accompanied by reciprocally increased concentrations of the n-3 PUFAs.
Effects of Oxidized Lipids on Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxidation in the Tissues of Chicken and Rabbit.
S.J.K.A. Ubhayasekera, P.C. Dutta, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
The main objective of this part of a multinational EU research project was to study the effects of dietary oxidized oils on the quality and safety of the animal products. A blend of sunflower-olive oils (70/30 V/V) of low (control), medium and high oxidation levels, were used in feeding experiments with chicken and rabbit. Feeds were prepared with 6% and 3% of the oils for chickens and rabbits, respectively. Muscle, liver and plasma tissues were assayed for the contents of cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products (COP). High oxidized oil feed higher the cholesterol levels in the muscles of chicken and rabbit, and similar patterns were observed for COP. Comparable results were observed in the levels of cholesterol and COP in livers of chicken and rabbit. High oxidized oil feed has increased the cholesterol levels in the chicken plasma, compared to low and medium oxidized oil feeds. However, the COP levels in the chicken plasma were about 3 times more in the group fed with high oxidized oils than the control group. Rabbit plasma follows a similar patten. In general, higher oxidized oils in feeds caused higher cholesterol levels in all the tissues (R2>0.9), whereas similar correlations were observed in the levels of COP (R2 >0.9).
A Comparative Study of the Use of High-Linoleic Acid Vegetable Oils in Producing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.
W. Gammill, V. Jain, A. Proctor, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is naturally found in dairy and beef products and has significant anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects in rats and humans. To ingest enough CLA to obtain a clinical effect, an unhealthy amount of saturated fat and cholesterol would have to be consumed. A 20% CLA-rich soybean oil, low in saturated fat and cholesterol, has been obtained by converting soy linoleic acid into CLA by photo-isomerization using ultraviolet light and an iodine catalyst. However, no other high-linoleic acid vegetable oils have been investigated. The objectives of this research were 1) to compare four commercial high-linoleic acid vegetable oils, including flax, sunflower, safflower, and corn oil with soy oil for their ability to form a CLA-rich oil by linoleic acid photo-isomerization; and 2) compare oil oxidative stability after photo-isomerization. Soybean oil had the highest CLA yield but oils with residual carotenoid pigments, such as corn oil, produced the least CLA but were more oxidatively stable. The presence of carotenoid pigments may be responsible for lower CLA yields by limiting light penetration during processing, but may also provide antioxidant protection.
Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Peas (Pisum sativum L.).
Hiromi Yoshida, Yuka Tomiyama, Megumi Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Mizushina, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
The fatty acid distribution of triacylglycerols (TAG) and major phospholipids (PL) obtained from four varieties of pea beans (Pisum sativum L.) was investigated. The total lipids extracted from the peas were separated by TLC into seven fractions. The major lipid components were PL (52.2-61.3%) and TAG (31.2-40.3%), while hydrocarbons, steryl esters, free fatty acids and diacylglycerols were also present in minor proportions (5.6-9.2%). The main PL components isolated from the four varieties were phosphatidyl choline (42.3-49.2%), phosphatidyl inositol (23.3-25.2%) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (17.7-20.5%). Significant differences (P < 0.05) in fatty acid distribution were found for different pea varieties. Phosphatidyl inositol was unique in that it had the highest saturated fatty acid content among the three PL. However, the principal characteristics of the fatty acid distribution in the TAG and three PL were evident among the four varieties: unsaturated fatty acids were predominantly located in the sn-2 position while saturated fatty acids primarily occupied the sn-1 or sn-3 position in the oils of the peas. These results should be useful to both producers and consumers for the manufacture of pea foods.
Effect of Dietary Fish Protein and Lipid on Plasma Lipid Metabolism in Rats.
K. Fukunaga1,3, R. Hosomi1, H. Arai2, T. Nishiyama3, M. Yoshida1, 1Kansai University, Suita Osaka Japan, 2Nagasaki University, Nagasaki Nagasaki Japan, 3Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi Osaka Japan
In this study, we examined the effect of dietary fish protein and oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Five-week-old Wistar rats were fed a standard diet (C:AIN93G), fish oil diet (FO;3.5% soy bean oil+3.5% tuna oil), fish protein diet (FP ;10%casein+10%cod protein) and fish oil/protein diet (FOP;3.5% soy bean oil+3.5% tuna oil /10%casein+10%cod protein) for 28 days. Lipid constituents in the plasma and liver, fecal excretion of bile acids and hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Rats fed FP and FOP showed lower levels of plasma cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, and liver cholesterol than rats fed C or FO. However, rats fed FOP and FO diets showed lower concentrations of triacylglycerols in liver and plasma than rats fed C and FP. Rats fed FP and FOP showed higher relative mRNA concentrations of SREBP-2, HMGCoA-R and LDL-R in their liver than rats fed C and FO. FP and FOP caused increased fecal excretion of bile acids and mRNA concentrations of CYP7. FO and FOP did not affect those parameters, but did cause increased mRNA concentrations of SREBP-1c. These findings show that fish protein has multiple effects on plasma and liver lipids that are in part caused by altered expression of the hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, at least a different metabolism of n-3 PUFA such as EPA or DHA in fish oil.
Alleviaton of Metabolic Syndrome with Bioactive Lipids.
B. Shirouchi, K. Nagao, T. Yanagita, Saga University, Saga, Japan
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders and contributes to the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently, dietary lipids have been recognized as contributing factors to the development and prevention of the cardiovascular risk clustering. Therefore, we evaluated the molecular actions of bioactive lipids on the development of MS.In the first study, we found that conjugated linoleic acid alleviated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the suppression of hepatic expression of inflammatory molecule, TNF-α, with increased levels of anti-inflammatory molecule, adiponectin, in the liver and serum. In the second study, we found that DHA-rich phosphatydylcholine (DHA-PC) alleviated MS through the suppressed lipogenesis, increased lipolysis and enhanced serum adiponectin levels in obese rats.Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a minor component of dietary phospholipids and its physiological function in the diet remains poorly understood. We found that PI diet markedly alleviated NAFLD through the increased lipolysis and the suppression of expressions of inflammatory molecules in the liver. The increase of adiponectin levels by dietary PI may contribute these effects.Here we show that bioactive lipids act as a dietary adiponectin inducer, and it may receive considerable attention with respect to the alleviation of MS by dietary components.
CLA Intake and Fat Metabolism in Growing Chickens.
Remi De Schrijver, Daniel Vermeulen, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Excessive deposition of abdominal fat is a problem in broiler production. We investigated whether CLA intake may reduce this phenomenon in growing chickens. Up to the age of 6 weeks, broiler chickens were fed a conventional basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.2%, 0.4% or 1% of a CLA mixture containing 41% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, 39% cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer and minor amounts of other CLA isomers. Animals on all diets showed similar growth rate as well as similar feed intake. At the age of 6 weeks, only the group fed the highest CLA dose showed significantly less carcass fat when compared with the negative control group (11% versus 13.6%). In parallelism with body fat content, also liver fat content was significantly lower (2.9% versus 3.3%). Contents of triglycerides, free fatty acids and free cholesterol in blood plasma were not affected by dietary treatments. However, plasma cholesterolesters increased with CLA intake. Total CLA isomers in the fatty acid profiles of plasma and liver amounted to 1.6% and 1.2%, respectively. This effect was accompanied by significantly lower contents of 20:2(n-6), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6) and 18:1(n-9) and higher contents of 18:0, indicating that CLA consumption may influence fatty acid conversions. Incorporation of CLA isomers in the fatty acid profile of total carcass fat was 3.4% in animals which received the highest dietary CLA enrichment.
Effects of Dietary Protein on the Body Fat-Reducing Activity of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Rats.
K. Koba1, A. Akahoshi2, K. Tanaka1, M. Sugano3, 1University of Nagasaki, Nagayo, Nagasaki, Japan, 2Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan, 3Professor Emeritus, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Previously, we suggested that the body fat-reducing activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was more effective in rats when the dietary protein source was soy protein (SPI) in relation to casein (CAS). Recently, it was demonstrated that feeding of β-conglycinin (CON), which is one of the main components of SPI reduced serum triglyceride concentration more than SPI itself. In the present study, therefore, we examined how the combination of CON and CLA affects the lipid metabolism in rats. The rats were fed diets containing either 20% of protein (CAS, SPI or CON) with 1% level of linoleic acid or CLA (9c,11t-18:2, 34%; 10t,12c-18:2, 36%). After 4 wk of feeding, dietary CON as compared CAS and SPI lowered the body weight gain caused by reduced food consumption and food efficiency. Dietary SPI and more so CON decreased perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue weights. This trend was more evident in combination with CLA irrespective of dietary protein. Serum triglyceride concentration also decreased in the order of CAS, SPI and CON, and CLA tended to decrease the concentration further. Therefore, it was suggested that body fat-reducing activity of CLA was more effective in combination with CON than with SPI. This effect could be at least partly due to decreased fatty acid synthesis and increased β-oxidation in the liver.