2012 The Forum
The Forum: Analytical Horizons
Chair(s): C. Dayton, Bunge Ltd., USA
In situ, Rapid, and Non-Destructive Analytical Techniques. C. Dayton, Bunge Global Innovation, White Plains, New York USA
In the recent past, Quality Control and Quality Assurance (QC/QA) laboratories were dominated by the large amount of samples, analysis, and analyst performing routine tests to determine if the process and/or products met specifications. The analytical results were typically placed into a log for manual retrieval and utilization by operations and Certificate of Analysis (C of A) for products. Today, the demand for business information moves at incredible speeds in order to meet customer demands and needs.This presentation will review spectral techniques that have evolved from laborious single data analysis that yielded a “reactive” control of process to an interactive and continuous control for both process and products in order to meet the demands of today′s business environment.
Innovations for Market Efficiency in Oils, Biofuels, and Related Commodities. Susan Olson, Genscape, Inc., USA
The presentation highlights technological innovations being used to bring about better market efficiency in oils, oilseeds and related goods. With supply and demand tightening in agricultural commodities, improving market efficiency is essential to globally optimizing the flow of oilseeds and derived goods. Innovation provides better, more accurate and more complete information about supply and demand fundamentals and increases market transparency and efficiency. For early investors in these advances, short-term benefits may be recognized with novel market strategies. Long-term benefits for all participants include more competitive markets with potentially less volatility. Information innovations explored include infrared and satellite imaging, new electronic exchanges and low-latency trading.
New In-situ FTIR Measurement methods for Real Time Reaction Optimization and Control in the Lab and Plant. S. Cusack, Mettler-Toledo, USA
From the lab to the plant, reaction understanding, optimization and control are the basic essentials to a successful process. A variety of analytical tools are used in the different phases of product development. One such tool that has proved to be valuable in these areas is in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. This presentation will focus on the capabilities and advantages afforded by in-situ, real time reaction monitoring by FTIR spectroscopy in the lab and the plant. Ultimately, this leads to increased speed of development, higher product quality and decreased cost of development.
Online NIR Spectroscopy Capabilities & Challenges: Is the Return Worth the Investment? D. Ryan, Solae LLC, St. Louis, MO, USA
Understandably production staff is always frustrated when they must wait on results to adjust the process. This could be data from the lab or bench top NIR′s. Both situations limit their ability to be effective at process control. Today′s modern production facilities have sophisticated process control interfaces for monitoring and control. Rapid feedback on key targeting parameters, however, is still a weak link. Lack of control always has negative cost ramifications. Effective process control can only be achieved with real time feedback that ultimately can be used for closed loop control. Production efficiencies in today′s challenging and competitive global markets can make the difference between business success and failure. We will explore fundamentally why all online sensor technology can be effective. The examples will focus on NIR; however, the principles can be applied to all online sensors. Best practice principles are reviewed. We will address the technical challenges and how to avoid pitfalls. Managers are asking key questions. Should we invest? When is the right time to invest? How are projects justified? We will outline a road map to answer these questions. Also, what improvements need to be made and what can we expect to see in the future.
In Situ Process Monitoring – UV / Visible Light. E. Umbreit, Lovibond® Tintometer North America, Sarasota, FL, USA
Continuous on-line color measurement of oils and other transparent liquids offers several advantages over the conventional approach of “grab sampling” followed by laboratory analysis. On-line colorimetry allows near real-time information at a low analytical cost that can be used for the measurement of constituent concentrations, early detection of trace contaminants and quality assurance analyses. Furthermore, analytical results can be fed back for automatic process control and optimization, yielding the potential of substantial cost savings in processing expense and rework.Traditionally, on-line colorimeters are photometric instruments that function by measuring absorption at a few discrete wavelengths, chosen to characterize the process stream. The disadvantage with photometric analysis is its limitation to monitoring trends in spectral characteristics as opposed to absolute color values. Also, with variable process streams there is no guarantee that the chosen wavelengths are the most appropriate for the current product.This spectrophotometric approach allows for the use of internationally recognized color coordinate systems, such as CIE Lab, and the subsequent translation of color data to industry specific color scales as referenced by standardizing bodies such as AOCS, DGF, ISO and ASTM. These include AF960 Lovibond® RY, Lovibond® RYBN, AOCS Tintometer®, Gardner, FAC and Pt-Co units. Related parameters such as beta carotene and chlorophyll concentrations/greenness can be derived simultaneously. New on-line spectrometer system employs fiber optics to keep the location of the key components and instrument control away from the processing environment.The presentation will provide the latest information and research in the area of on-line color process control as well as the potential beneficial results of the technology.
The Forum: Functional Lipids
Chair(s): F. Flider, Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., and H. Knapp, Big Sky Medical Research, USA
Gamma Linolenate: A Functional Lipid Strategy to Modulate Insulin Resistance and Obesity. Stephen Phinney, Beyond Obesity LLC, USA
AbstractObesity is the result of poorly regulated fuel partitioning, which in turn is commonly associated with insulin resistance. Elevated insulin levels promote storage of fats in adipose tissue and prevent their oxidation. Whereas careful study of insulin receptors and glucose transporters cannot explain impaired insulin action, a seminal paper by Borkman et al (NEJM 238:328, 1993) found tight correlations between insulin sensitivity and muscle membrane arachidonate (M-AA). M-AA, in turn, is a function of its dietary intake (plus production from linoleate), coupled with its rate of degradation. We have reported reduced AA in the phospholipids (PL) of both obese humans and genetically obese rats. Low carbohydrate diets sharply increase AA in serum phospholipids while simultaneously reducing insulin resistance, suggesting that M-AA may play an important role in the improved fuel partitioning seen with carbohydrate restriction. A functional lipid strategy to increase M-AA is to administer gamma-linolenate (GLA). GLA (found in a number of specialty seed oils) is an AA precursor that bypasses the rate limiting step in AA production. When GLA is given to genetically obese weanling rats, it significantly reduces weight gain and body fat content by reducing voluntary food intake. In formerly obese humans attempting to maintain prior weight loss, GLA given in a year-long randomized trial significantly reduced weight gain compared to controls. These observations indicate that M-AA plays an important role in fuel partitioning, that M-AA appears to be disregulated in obese humans, and its correction by dietary change or supplement is an important target in long-term weight management.
Towards Designer Functional Lipids: Regiospecific and Structural Analyses of NZ Marine Oils. M. Miller1, N. Perry2, N. Joyce3, E. Burgess2, S. Marshall1, 1The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Nelson, New Zealand , 2The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 3The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand
The lipids of two major New Zealand marine oil sources were investigated with particular attention to their regiospecific nature using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Oils from hoki, Macruronus novaezelandiae sp., and green lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus (GLM), were analysed for regiospecific distribution of long chain (C≥20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) between the sn-1,3 and sn-2 glycerol chains. This was established by response from the carbonyl region in the triacylglycerol fraction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had a preference for the sn-2 position in both oils (59.2% hoki, & 63.4% GLM). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) had a more even distribution among the three positions on the triglyceride backbone in hoki oil (29.1% on sn-2) while there was a slight sn-2 positional preference in the GLM oils (37.6% GML). This regiospecific information is vital to distinguish the source of omega 3 LC-PUFA rich marine oils for authentication purposes. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry was used to identify specific intact lipids and determine their spacial distribution within GLM whole muscle. This emerging technique directly correlates anatomic features with individual lipid species and classes and allows rapid lipid structural information. This work describes native NZ oils with the aim to develop novel, possibly enzymatically designed, oils with desired functionality.
Sans Trans :Where do we go from here? Gary R. List, USDA, Retired, USA
Health /nutrition concerns over saturated and trans acids have impacted the edible oil industry, much of which can be attributed to nutrition labeling regulations in effect since January 1, 2006. During the period 2003-2007, over 1900 foods were reformulated to low/zero trans fat . Although exempt from federal law, the food service industry took the lead by replacing heavily hydrogenated oils with liquid oils including naturally stable (corn, cottonseed, sunflower) oils free of linolenic acid. Others replaced trans with saturated fat from tropical oils. Hydrogenation has been the fat modification tool of choice in the U.S. for many years because of relatively cheap and abundant soybean oil. However, under the conditions used in commercial hardening, considerable amounts of trans fats are formed. Over the past decade soybean oil has shrunk from over 80% of domestic consumption to about 65%. In addition, there has been a marked decrease in the use of heavily hydrogenated baking/frying fats, and a marked Increase in use of lightly hydrogenated /or liquid oils in the salad/cooking oil category.Major innovations in the oilseed processing industry include products made by enzymatic rearrangement, fractionation of tropical oils, and the reentry of trait modified oils into the marketplace.Other approaches to trans fat reduction have centered around modified hydrogenation technologies including hydrogenation in critical fluids, pressure controlled hardening, use of low iodine value basestocks, catalyst switching strategies, and catalyst modification. The use of oleogels and improved emulsifiers as trans fat replacements has also received attention from researchers.
New Temperature-Stable Emulsions can Increase PUFA-containing Lipids and Shelf Life in a Variety of Foods. Micah Needham, Jimbin Mai, Gang Su, Wei Wang-Nolan, Jeff Mazick, DSM, USA
The market for PUFA-containing foods continues to increase as do the challenges in supplementing new foodstuffs. PUFA-containing delivery forms and products oxidize very readily creating rancid fishy and painty odors. New emulsion technology uses a modified food starch in combination with freezing point depressors to allow freezer storage of the PUFA emulsion. OSA modified food starch is allows for an emulsifier that primarily relies on steric repulsion as its emulsion stabilizing mechanism. Application into many foods does not drastically change the emulsifier on the oil droplet surface and therefore makes it well suited for multiple uses. It is also pourable at freezer temperatures, allowing customers to use the material without deleterious thawing procedures or extended processing. To prepare this emulsion, ingredient incorporation was optimally designed to limit bubble entrainment and quickly cool the thermally-sensitive product to storage conditions. The combination of ingredients, procedure and equipment yield an average oil droplet of 100nm with excellent physical stability. Further, the PUFA containing emulsion has a year-long shelf life and multiple applications in beverages, without imparting oxidized aromas or flavors even when applied before hot filling.
Improved Enzymatic Process Enriching Tuna Oil with Docosahexaenoic Acid. Y. Watanabe1, K. Maruyama2, T. Nagao1, Y. Shimada3, 1Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, Osaka, Japan, 2Maruha Nichiro Holdings Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 3Okamura Oil Mill Ltd., Osaka, Japan
For the purpose of the efficient intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to support brain development and to prevent dementia, DHA enriched oil is produced by the selective hydrolysis of tuna oil (28% DHA) using Candida rugosa lipase in Japan; hydrolyzing C16-C18 FAs mainly by the lipase results in the concentration of PUFA in residual glycerides. The enzymatic hydrolysis of tuna oil and the removal of FFA should be conducted repeatedly to achieve >60% DHA content. The repetition, however, increases loss of DHA, risk of PUFA oxidation and coloring of the product, and deteriorates the quality. This paper shows that the addition of ethanol in the course of hydrolysis successfully increased DHA content without significant decrease in the yield; the first hydrolysis of tuna oil increased DHA content to 38 mol%. The second hydrolysis of the resulting oil increased DHA content to 51 mol% after 44 h (yield, 73%). Further increase to 60 mol% was achieved by addition of 0.5 mol ethanol at 20 h (yield, 76%). The rest of DHA (24%) was distributed mainly to FFA but little to FAEE. Thus, ethanol was considered to shift the equilibrium of the hydrolysis of C16-C18 FAs strongly compared to that of DHA.
Time for an Oil Upgrade: New Omega-3 Soybean Oil Meets Consumer Demand for Healthier Fats. Don Banks, Edible Oil Technologies, Texas, USA
Is your baked good, snack or beverage ready for an oil change? Are you meeting consumer demand for healthier food products? Food companies can leverage a new stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil to offer better-for-you products. SDA-enhanced soybean oil is an optimal omega-3 for food. It readily converts to EPA, offers excellent taste and stability, and can be added to a wide range of products. Omega-3 is the only fatty acid that consumers perceive as more healthy than unhealthy. More than 80 percent of Americans perceive omega-3 as a healthy fatty acid according to the 2012 Consumer Attitudes about Nutrition survey conducted by the United Soybean Board, up 5 points over 2011. A study by the Natural Marketing Institute found that 56 percent of consumers want more omega-3s in their food and beverages. Yet consumers are only getting 25 percent of their recommended long-chain omega-3 needs. SDA omega-3 soybean oil can bridge this gap and be used in diverse applications, such as enhanced water, yogurt, cereal bars, soups, margarines, salad dressings, breads, and cookies. It is in testing now with food companies, preparing for commercialization.
The Forum: Communication and Computer Technology
Chair(s): A. Lopez, AOCS, USA
Social Media Foundations. J. Zimmerman, RocketFuel SOcial Media, Inc., Chicago, IL USA
We’ll start the social media sessions by defining what social media is, why it has grown so popular, and why you should be using it. We’ll explore the most popular social media sites: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and LinkedIn.At the end of this session you will be able to:● Identify common social networking websites and distinguish their unique functionality and applications● Identify the time and resources required to establish and maintain an effective social networking site● Develop a dialogue with your leadership team to create a social networking strategy for your organization and yourself.● Use successful practices in social networking to facilitate communication
How Social Media Impacts You and Your Organization. Krista Neher, Boot Camp Digital, USA
Social media is changing the way we work, communicate and how we get things done. With over 850 million people now on Facebook, social media can no longer be ignored.Social Media isn't just for fun - it is a tool that is impacting businesses. From marketing to research and development to customer service, the impacts of social media are prevalent and growing.Whether you are new to social media or have been involved for some time, this session will help you understand what social media is and how it is impacting businesses.In this intensive session we'll cover:- Social Media and Business - The key ways that social media is impacting organizations of all types and sizes.- Avoiding Social Media Pitfalls - How to be efficient in your use of social media, and common organizational issues with social media.
Facilitating Collaboration & Innovation Through the use of Mobile and Web-based Social Media Technologies. Rick Ladd, Rick Ladd & Associates, Simi Valley, CA USA
This presentation will explore the value and use of social media as a communications technology, and how it can enhance and facilitate collaboration and innovation within the AOCS community and its constituent industries.Understanding how consumer-oriented applications can be put to use within an organization, while carefully respecting its information security needs and concerns, will be covered. Also addressed will be the importance of both top-down and bottom-up leadership, support, encouragement, and activity in transforming organizational culture to one that fosters sharing, collaboration, and innovative methods of accomplishing its goals.Special emphasis will be placed on the value of various platforms and applications designed to enhance the ability of far-flung teams and distributed research activities to share information and knowledge as it's created, both in real-time and within structured knowledgbases. Included in the discussion will be both web-based and mobile capabilities and uses.Several successful case studies will be presented, illustrating some of the uses to which this technology has been successfully applied.
The Forum: Renewable Oils for Biobased Products
Chair(s): José Olivares, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
Higher Yields of Oil Seeds from Next-generation Plant Breeding Technologies. James Barlow, Soilweb, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA, USA
James Barlow, an agronomist who has been involved in the planning of large-scale plantations of oil seed-bearing trees in a number of countries will speak about the primary production of raw feed stock of inedible oils to supply refiners and processors for conversion into finished products. A brief history of the boom in biodiesel production that began in 2006 with its ups and downs will be given as context to recent breakthroughs in plant breeding that have upgraded the industry to oil seeds 2.0. These new technologies greatly increase yields of oil per acre or hectare to make the production of feed stocks from oil seed-bearing trees much more economically practical. This is a welcomed boon to our global goal of creating a viable renewable oils industry.
Compositional Analysis of Microalgal Lipid Feedstock and Produced Fuel. Tanner Schaub, Chemical Analysis and Instrumentation Laboratory, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
To achieve economic viability, microalgal-based fuel production systems must realize efficiency at every stage. Efficient use of available microalgal lipid feedstocks will require extraction and conversion schema which address not only triglycerides, but the chemistry of other cellular lipid classes as well. The acyl hydrocarbon content of membrane and cellular lipids is a non-negligible fraction of the total available energy crop that may be harvested from microalgae. Technologies that provide effective extraction and conversion of all available hydrocarbons are needed and analytical methods that can address the natural complexity of these systems are central to the development of such technologies. Here, we employ ultrahigh resolution FT-ICR MS to provide a detailed qualitative description of lipid feedstocks derived from two biofuel candidate microalgal species, Scenedesmus obliquus and Nannochloropsis salina. We describe the heteroatom and lipid class distribution for several thousand observed compounds and illustrate double-bond and carbon number distribution for abundant lipid classes. Additionally, we provide a semi-quantitative description of these materials for several key lipid classes (e.g. free fatty acids, glycerolipids), typical fatty acid methyl ester yields and illustrate lipid class-specific fuel conversion efficiency for a bench-scale transesterification reaction.
Cellulosic-derived Levulinic Ketal Esters: A New Alternative to Petroleum-based Chemicals. L. Rieth, M. Hilton, Segetis, Inc., Golden Valley, MN, USA
Levulinic acid and levulinate esters are a class of compounds readily derived from cellulose, hemi-cellulose, or starch feedstocks. The discovery of highly selective ketalization of alkyl levulinates has enabled the development of novel levulinic ketal ester building blocks, a bio-based alternative to petroleum-derived chemicals. In addition to reducing fossil fuel demand, greenhouse gas emissions, and toxicity concerns, levulinic ketal esters bring desirable performance features to a number of industrial and consumer applications. This talk will describe these unique properties and performance attributes of levulinic ketals, particularly in comparison to traditional petroleum-based incumbents.
Renewable Oils for Bio-based Products Abstract. Walt Rakitsky, Solazyme, Inc., USA
Solazyme is a renewable oil and bioproducts company that transforms plant-based sugars into high value triglyceride oils utilizing a scalable industrial fermentation process powered by microalgae. Markets targeted for commercialization include Fuels, Chemicals, Nutrition, and Personal Care. Solazyme’s renewable algal based products can replace or enhance oils derived from the world’s three existing sources – petroleum, plants and animal fats. Our technology allows us to create oil profiles with specific carbon chain lengths, saturation levels and functional groups which modify important physical properties such as melting profiles, oxidative stability and viscosity. Until now, the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional oils have been dictated by oils found in nature, blends derived from them and conventional separation, chemical and enzymatic interesterification processes. Solazyme has created a new paradigm that enables the company to design and produce novel tailored oils with properties optimized for food and industrial applications.Throughout this presentation, Solazyme will highlight the versatility of the technology platform and discuss the properties and applications of a new source of renewable oils.
The Forum: Breaking the Paradigm: Sustainable Use of Resources and Technologies
Chair(s): Ena Chan Cratsenburg, Amyris, USA; and Jeffrey J. Scheibel, The Procter & Gamble Co., USA
From New Technology to Commercial Scale: Proprietary Metathesis Technology Creating Differentiated Performance with Sustainable Materials. A. Corr, Elevance Renewable Sciences, Woodridge, IL, USA
While demand for sustainable chemicals continues to grow, for emerging companies in the renewable chemicals arena there are many challenges to scale up and success. Elevance Renewable Sciences, using its proprietary metathesis technology, has moved from the lab thru toll-based production to construction of commercial biorefineries in Asia and North America. The commercialization of products from Elevance’s biorefineries later this year will allow the emergence of renewable chemicals useful for a range of markets including surfactants, personal care, lubes and fuels, engineered polymers, and performance waxes. Elevance will share some background on their path to today, the metathesis technology, and the type of renewable products that are available to the market today at scale.
Feasibility Approaches—Connect & Develop. Jeffrey J. Scheibel, The Procter & Gamble Co., USA
To quote our CEO, Bob McDonald, “P&G's Purpose and growth strategy is to improve more lives in more parts of the world more completely — with an unrelenting focus on innovation. We want to partner with the best innovators everywhere, which is why Connect + Develop is at the heart of how P&G innovates.” A good idea or a good invention can come from anywhere and anyone. Finding that company or person is a result of casting the net wide and often, defining a solid strategy toward developing the idea and finally being flexible with how you partner and proceed with the development towards commercialization. This presentation will provide an overview of how P&G uses collect and develop to win in the marketplace with technology from all over the world.
Navigating the Legal Issues with Partnerships. A. Toro, Covington & Burling, USA
A key element in protecting and capturing the value of new sustainable technologies is careful consideration of the ways in which renewable/sustainable technology companies protect, manage and license their intellectual property. The complications in this area are particularly important in a world of collaboration and partnerships. This presentation will review not only conventional patent protection but also protection of trade secrets, prudent technology transfer, handling of biological materials and treatment of technology improvements. But intellectual property protection and management themselves are not enough. The technology developer must have a development, scale-up and commercial strategy that interplays with its intellectual property strategy and approach. In a world where a single company may not be able to “go it alone”, it is important to consider various alternative “collaborative” structures, including out-licensing, partnership and collaborations and/or formal joint ventures in light of the company’s goals.
Chartering an Industry’s Path to Sustainability. Brian Sansoni, American Cleaning Institute, Washington, DC, USA
The cleaning products industry in the United States – including product manufacturers and their chemical suppliers – is on a steady path towards sustainability via breakthroughs in innovation, best-in-class research and development, improved transparency, enhanced dialogue with consumers, and voluntary initiatives that can counter increasing calls for more regulation. The American Cleaning Institute, which represents the makers of cleaning products sold in the United States and their suppliers, is helping its members chart the industry’s path forward through the publication of the first-ever Sustainability Report for the industry, which details aggregated environmental metrics, profiles ACI's social and environmental sustainability programs and activities on behalf of the industry, and offers snapshots of how individual member companies are incorporating sustainability initiatives into their day-to-day business.