2012 Protein and Co-Products
PCP 1: Biofuel Co-Products: Recovery, Value Addition, and Sustainability
Chair(s): K. Liu, USDA, ARS, USA; H. Wang, Iowa State University, USA; and J. Wanasundara, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada
Increasing Protein Content of DDGS in Corn Dry Grind Process. S. Li, W. Liu, K. Rausch, M. Tumbleson, V. Singh, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with is a coproduct of conventional dry grind ethanol plant. Due to its high fiber content, DDGS is used primarily as ingredient in ruminant animal diets. Reducing fiber and increasing protein content will allow DDGS use as an ingredient in poultry and swine diets. Increase in protein and decrease in fiber content of DDGS can be achieved by modified dry grind corn process (E-Mill process) that fractionates corn kernel (to recover germ and fiber as coproducts) prior to fermentation (2). Further increase in protein content and decrease in fiber content can be achieved by extraction of oligosaccharides and other soluble carbohydrates or by acid precipitation of the protein from E-Mill DDGS. E-Mill DDGS was further processed to produce protein isolate (PI) and concentrate (PC) products. The yield and protein content of PI and PC products were determined. PC protein content greater than 60% was achieved. 1. Liu, K. 2011. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 1508-1526.2. Singh, V., Johnston, D. B., Naidu, K., Rausch, K. D., Belyea, R. L., and Tumbleson, M. E. 2005. Comparison of modified dry-grind corn processes for fermentation characteristics and DDGS composition. Cereal Chem. 82:187-19.
New Value-added Coproducts from Grain-based Ethanol Production by a Patent-pending Recovery Method. Keshun Liu, Frederic Barrows, USDA, ARS, USA
The production of fuel ethanol in the United States and elsewhere is a quickly growing industry. At present, a major co-product of the ethanol industry is corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the primary use is in the livestock industry. However, DDGS typically has characteristics that limit the inclusion level or value for animal feeds. For example, DDGS is highly variable in composition and contains high levels of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and some other minerals. At USDA-ARS, we have developed a novel method to recover co-products from the dry-grind process. The new method not only produces distiller grains with much less variable composition but also gives three new co-products with unique new composition. First, an ash-rich fraction (ash content around 30%, dry matter basis) is a good mineral supplement for feed or food. Second, a modified solubles product has increased protein and reduced fat and ash contents. Third, an oil-rich fraction can be a feedstock for biodiesel production. When both mineral supplement and modified soluble product were fed to rainbow trout, an increase in the digestibility of energy, dry matter, fat, phosphorus, and some essential amino acids (such as lysine and threonine) was observed. Long term feeding trials on rainbow trout with these products are underway.
Value-addition to Dry-Grind Co-Products: α-zein Extraction and Characterization for Non-food Use. B.P. Lamsal, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
Zein was recovered from corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by a modified method using 70% (w/w) aqueous 2-propanol (70-IPA) or 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol (70-EtOH) solvents, and a commercial method using 88% (w/w) aqueous 2-propanol (88-IPA). Yield, purity, and film properties of the isolated zein were determined. The modified procedure extracted two fractions of zeins: a mostly α-zein fraction, and a mostly γ- zein fraction. The modified method increased α-zein yield from 4 to 14%. Enzyme cellulase pretreatment did not improve zein yield, but grinding did. The α-zein fraction showed electrophoretic bands at 40, 22, 19, and 10 kDa, corresponding to α-zein dimer, α1-zein, α2-zein, and δ-zein, respectively. The α-zein of DDGS retained its film forming capability. The α-zein film of unmodified DDGS was cloudy and rough, unlike the clear and smooth films of α-zeins isolated from corn gluten meal and enzyme-treated DDGS.
Microalgal Protein Isolation from Nannochloropsis spp. Defatted Biomass. J.A. Gerde1, L. Yao1, S. Jung1, B. Lamsal1, L.A. Johnson2,1, T. Wang1, 1Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2Center for Crops Utilization Research Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
Nannochloropsis spp. is a marine photosynthetic microalgae that produces approximately 20% lipids and 35% protein. Oil extraction models on this alga have been developed for the production of biofuels. The remaining biomass was extracted under alkaline conditions to produce an algal protein isolate. All the streams were quantified and characterized for peptides, amino acid composition, nitrogen content, and carbohydrates.
Challenges in Extraction and Recovery of Algae Biofuel Co-products. R. Green, POS Bio-Sciences, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Algal lipids offer considerable promise for conversion into renewable biofuels. The utilization of co-products from the remaining residual biomass however, is critical for the commercial viability of algae processing. High value co-products may include the meal, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, carotenoids, phytosterols, and antimicrobial agents. The algae harvesting and lipid extraction techniques will affect the availability of potential co-products remaining in the extracted algal solids. Generation of heat due to friction during disruption of algal cells may degrade valuable protein and secondary metabolites. Solvent extraction of the lipids may extract valuable co-products which are difficult to separate from the resulting oil fraction. Specific compounds may also be denatured depending on the solvent used. If the target co-products are to be utilized for food and feed ingredients, certain anti-nutrients or unpalatable compounds may be difficult to remove. Other target compounds may be conjugated with structural components of the algae biomass and require hydrolysis to be recovered. The preservation and effective recovery of co-products need to be considered in the design of an effective algae biofuel processing scheme.
Investigation of Net Shape Forming of Protein Based Plastics for Industrial Applications. David Grewell, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
Processability of plant-based protein and oil plastics was investigated by extrusion, injection molding, casting and compression molding. The goal of this work was to develop formulations that could meet industrial spefications. Applications included, lubrication sticks, plant pots, chew toys and chemical delivery applications. The mechanical properties were enhanced the addition of crosslinking agents such as glyoxal trimer di-hydrate (GTD), phthalic anhydride and natural fibers like coconut fiber husks (CFH) and corn cobs (CC). It was observed that plastics with GTD cross-linkers and composite plastics processed with CFH exhibited superior properties. Another objective was to improve water stability of soy protein isolate (SPI) plastics by using commercial plasticizers as crosslinking modifiers.
Barley Oil as a Co-Product of Hulled and Hulless Barley. R.A. Moreau, K.B. Hicks, D.B. Johnston, Eastern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, USA
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is use for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley grain is not easy or economical. However, when barley is milled by various methods some of its milling fractions are enriched in oil (up to about 10%) and these fractions have been used to produce barley oil. Barley oil is a high-linoleate oil, whose fatty acid composition is similar to corn oil and several other commodity plant oils. The composition of phytosterols in barley oil is higher than in most commodity plant oils. The most unique feature about barley oil is the very high levels of tocotrienols (especially alpha-tocotrienol). Several studies have demonstrated health-promoting properties of barley oil. The health promoting property that has received the most attention is the ability of barley oil to reduce the levels of serum cholesterol in laboratory animals and in humans, which is attributed to its high levels of tocotrienols.
PCP 2: Bioactive Food Proteins and Peptides I - Fundamentals
Chair(s): H. Ibrahim, Kagoshima University, Japan; and H. Kumagai, Nihon University, Japan
D-Amino Acid as a Novel Biofactor. T. Yoshimura, S. Kato, T. Ito, H. Hemmi, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aich, Japan
Recent advances in analytical techniques have demonstrated the various D-amino acids are distributed in eukaryotes including mammals and bear important physiological functions. For example, D-serine acts as a co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA), an excitatory glutamate receptors in mammalian brain. Relationship has been reported between D-serine and central nervous system diseases. For example, the amount of D-serine and the relative ratio of D-serine to (D+L)-serine are significantly decreased in serum and frontal lobe of schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease patients, and an excess amount of D-serine is produced in the spinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. D-Asp is involved in the hormone secretion regulations, and probably plays a role in mammalian fertilization processes. D-Ser and D-Asp are endogenously synthesized, however the exogenously supplied D-amino acids are transported to their site of action. We thus cannot rule out the possibility that D-amino acids in food have some physiological functions in mammals. In this presentation, I will introduce the physiological functions of D-amino acids, and presence and formation of D-amino acids in the fermented foods.This work was supported in part by the Program for Promotion of Basic and Applied Researches for Innovation in Bio-oriented Industry (BRAIN).
Fermentation of GABA Enriched Salt-free Soybean Paste and its Application. Hajime Hatta1, Sakiko Shou1, Yoshie Ueno2, 1Kyoto Women's University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Kyoto Prefectural Technology Center, Kyoto, Japan
γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) is generated from glutamic acid by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). It is found, for example, in fermented soybean paste, because the GAD of lactic acid bacteria produced GABA during its fermentation. Orally administered GABA reduced blood pressure (BP), therefore, GABA enriched foods have been in the Japanese market as the food for specified health uses (FOSHU). Here, we attempted to develop GABA enriched salt-free soybean paste for people recommended to intake low salt diets. Three species of bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis IFO 12005、L. hilgardii K-3、L.buchneri JCM 1115) were compared for the efficiency of GABA production during salt-free fermentation with and without adding ethanol as a preservative. L. hilgardii K-3 was found to be the most effective bacterium for GABA production after 2-week salt-free fermentation; although all the soybean pastes were spoiled without the addition of ethanol. The spoiling was prevented by adding 2% ethanol without changing an efficiency of GABA production. However, the GABA production was decreased at 3% of ethanol or more. Finally, we succeeded in producing GABA enriched salt-free soybean paste which contains 0.2% GABA. Since daily intake of 20 mg GABA is reported to be necessary for reducing BP, about 10g of the GABA enriched soybean paste per serve is adequate for us to expect lowering BP.
Orally Active Neuromodulatory Peptides. Kousaku Ohinata, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
Endogenous neuropeptides, playing important roles in rapid neural signaling, usually exhibit potent activities after central but not after oral administration; however, low-molecular-weight peptides derived from food proteins sometime have neuromodulatory actions even after oral administration. Intriguingly, dipeptides can be produced industrially both by the enzymatic digestion of proteins and by a novel method based on L-amino acid α-ligase.We found that Tyr-Leu (YL) has potent anxiolytic-like activity comparable to diazepam after oral administration on employing the elevated plus-maze test in mice. The YL-induced anxiolytic-like activity was blocked by an antagonist of serotonin 5-HT1A, dopamine D1 or GABAA receptor; however, YL exhibited no affinity for these receptors. Taken together, the anxiolytic-like activity of YL was mediated by the activation of 5-HT1A and dopamine D1 receptor, followed by GABAA receptor. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that C-terminal but not N-terminal elongation of YL might be tolerated for the anxiolytic activity. YL sequences are present in the primary structure of natural food proteins. Food protein-derived peptides with a YL sequence after digestion by enzymes present in the gastrointestinal tract might potentially contribute to satisfaction in the post-prandial state. We also introduce the other neuromodulatory peptides.
Suppressive Effect of Buckwheat Albumin against the Elevation of Blood Glucose. Kazumi Ninomiya, Shigenobu Ina, Makoto Akao, Hitomi Kumagai, Nihon University, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa, Japan
Type-2 diabetes is prevalent in the world, and control of the daily diet is crucial to prevent it. Wheat albumin is known to be effective to suppress postprandial hyperglycemia because it has inhibitory activity against α-amylase. However, the activity of proteins in other cereals has not been fully understood yet. This study examined the inhibitory activity of buckwheat albumin against α-amylase and its suppressive effect against postprandial hyperglycemia. An α-amylase inhibitor was purified from the buckwheat albumin fraction. The inhibitory activity of the α-amylase inhibitor against α-amylase from various sources, its digestibility and thermal stability were examined. Then, the α-amylase inhibitor was administered to rats together with starch, and blood glucose level was measured. The α-amylase inhibitor inhibited α-amylase from porcine pancreas and mealworm, but not that from human saliva. It maintained high α-amylase inhibitory activity even after digestion by pepsin and trypsin or after heat treatment. The α-amylase inhibitor suppressed the elevation of the blood glucose level after the ingestion of starch.
Bioactive Amino Acid that Prevents Hepatic Injury. H. Kumagai, Nihon University, Fujisawa-shi, Japan
S-Alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides are odorless water-soluble amino acids found in Allium plants such as garlic and onion. S-Allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) is the major one in garlic, whereas S-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PeCSO) is the major one in onion. S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO) is contained in both garlic and onion. These sulfoxides are converted by C-S lyase into sulfides that characterize the flavor of the plants when the plants are cut. Although these sulfides are known to be highly bioactive, their odor is sometimes too strong to be acceptable. However, the odor is not produced if C-S lyase is inactivated. Therefore, if S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, odor precursors, are converted into active compounds in the body after digestion and absorption, it would be possible to prepare “odorless garlic” that has the same function as common garlic. In this study, ACSO, the major odor precursor in garlic, was administered to rats to examine if it would prevent hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. Orally-administered ACSO suppressed the elevation of AST, ALT, LDH, and TBARS value, indicating that it prevented hepatic injury. It also induced the activities of phase II enzymes. These effects were characteristic of ACSO, but were not seen with other S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides or S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine.
Nutritional Aspect of β-conglycinin and its Physiological Function - Interaction with Body-fat Reducing Potential of CLA. Kazunori Koba1, Daichi Oikawa2, Shizuka Tamaru1, Kazunari Tanaka1, Michihiro Sugano3, 1University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Nagasaki, Japan, 2Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan, 3Professor Emeritus, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Beta-conglycinin (CON), a major component of soy protein (SPI), is suggested to be responsible for serum and liver triglyceride reducing potential of SPI. However, CON as compared with casein (CAS) and SPI lowers body weight gain in rats as a result of the decrease in food consumption. To add essential amino acids, Thr, Val, Met, Tyr and Trp, to CON at the levels equivalent to those in CAS completely ameliorated the decrease of food consumption. This manipulation resulted in a decrease of serum and liver triglyceride concentrations. Thus, essential amino acid profile is at least responsible for a CON-dependent reduction of food consumption. In a separate study, we confirmed that the deficiency of Met and Trp of CON caused a reduction of food consumption. Also, CON-dependent reduction of food consumption disappeared, keeping the triglyceride lowering effect when CON was replaced with CAS at the 1:1 ratio.We also examined how the combination of CON and CLA modulates the lipid metabolism in rats. The results suggested that body fat-reducing potential of CLA was more evident in combination with CON than with SPI. This effect could be partly due to decreased fatty acid synthesis and increased β-oxidation in the liver.
Bioactivity of Protein and Phenolic Extracts of Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG) - Assessment of Their DNA Protective Effect Against Oxidant-induced DNA Single Strand Breaks in U937 Cells. N.M. O'Brien1, A.L. McCarthy1, Y.C. O'Callaghan1, A. Connolly2,1, C.O. Piggott2,1, R.J. FitzGerald2,1, 1University College Cork, Cork, Ireland, 2University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG), is a valuable source of bioactive ingredients, specifically proteins (and encrypted bioactive peptide sequences) and phenolic substances We isolated and characterized peptides and phenolic compounds from BSG and assessed their potential bioactivities in human cells. Cytomodulatory activities are quantified using biomarkers for antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, anti-atherogenic and cholesterol lowering capability in different cell lines. In a series of experiments completed we have assessed the ability of phenolic-rich BSG extracts to protect against oxidant-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytic U937 cells. DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay and the oxidants employed were H2O2, SIN-1, 4-NQO and t-BOOH. The phenolic extracts of BSG protected against the genotoxic effects of H2O2 and SIN-1, but not against 4-NQO and t-BOOH. Results suggest phenolic extracts may possibly be chelating iron and/or scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar studies are ongoing with respect to evaluating the antioxidant potential of protein and peptide-rich fractions of BSG. Results to-date provide valuable information on the potential of BSG to be exploited as a source of bioactive ingredients.
Bone Growth Promoting Bioactive Peptides (Bonepep) from Egg Yolk. Mujo Kim1, Kazuhito Takeshima1, Kenji Horie1, Tetsuro Yamane2, 1Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd., Japan, 2Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Japan
The egg is a complete nutritional food with the high nutritional value extremely in food. Hen egg hatch into chick after warming for 21 days. It means that hen egg contains every integrant element to compose a life. We focused on one particular element of hen egg that makes up for bones and developed hen egg yolk derived food ingredient "Bonepep" for bone-metabolism improvement. Bone normally is brought a balance between bone formulation and absorption by osteoblast and osteoclast. It constantly keeps a certain amount of bone mass to break old bone, and create new bone. The effect of Bonepepon bone metabolism was studied with growing rats. One study to see the effect of Bonepep on bone formulation confirmed that oral ingestion of Bonepep significantly promoted an elongation rate of tibiae among rats. Furthermore, another study with ovariectomized mouse (OVX), as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis, to verify the inhibitory effect of bone absorption showed that oral ingestion of Bonepepsignificantly inhibited loss of bone density among OVX.
Therapeutic Potential of Novel Bioactive Peptides from Honey. Hisham R. Ibrahim, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
A substantial part of honey is made of proteins, which form about 30-50% of the dry mass. The major honey proteins belong to a larger family based on Major Royal Jelly Proteins (MRJPs), of which nine members with molecular masses in the range of 49-87 kDa have been identified. These MRJPs do not have any relatives in other non-insect metazoan species and is generally accepted that they play a role as a source of essential amino acids in the nutrition of honeybee larvae. However, there has not been any evidence provided for the bio-activities of honey proteins or their peptides. For therapeutic and nutraceutical applications, it remains to be explored whether these proteins and their gastrointenstinal digests, i.e. peptides, exert physiological role in protection or treatment of human diseases. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that gastrointestinal digestion simulation liberates bio-active peptides encrypted into honey proteins. Specifically, this work will explore novel bio-active peptides of honey proteins, which heralding a fascinating opportunity for its potential candidacy as anti-oxidative therapeutic peptides for the treatment and risk reduction of emerging oxidative stress related diseases.
PCP 3 Bioactive Food Proteins and Peptides II - Applications
Chair(s): N.S. Hettiarachchy, University of Arkansas, USA; and P. Kerr, Solae LLC, USA
New Separation Technology leads to Sustainable and Economical New Soy Proteins. K. Keller, R. Konduru, B. Pierce, S. Stahl, E. Ersen, Solae-DuPont, St. Louis, MO, USA
Do you know that, on average, the CO2 emissions from your car are of the same order of magnitude as that of the food you consume? Food production has attracted attention from the global community due to its demand for large amounts of energy and natural resources. When evaluating the environmental impact of various foods, soy protein is a sustainable solution. The industrial production process of soy proteins was introduced more than 50 years ago and soy proteins are produced in hundreds of thousands of tons by Solae. After oil extraction from the soybeans, the residual white flakes contain fibers, proteins, sugars and minerals. The soy proteins are extracted from white flakes using water and the fibers are removed using solid bowl centrifuges. Isoelectric precipitation is used to purify proteins from the extract. To further improve quality and reduce the environmental footprint of this process, new separation processes are being considered to produce new soy proteins. One option is to use combinations of membrane technology to increase yield and improve quality. To separate specific proteins, chromatographic technology is a common process to generate new ingredients. In-process water recycling will play a critical role in the future. This presentation will provide an overview of new soy products generated by unique separation technology.
Production and Efficacy Testing of Plant Protein-derived Antihypertensive Protein Hydrolysates and Peptides. Rotimi Aluko, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Plant proteins are cheap sources of raw materials for the production of bioactive peptides, especially antihypertensive peptides that can be used to formulate functional foods and nutraceuticals. This presentation focuses on antihypertensive peptides produced from yellow field pea, flax and hemp seed proteins. A pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was produced by thermolysin digest of pea protein isolate (PPI) followed by ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membrane. The PPH showed in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities with subsequent lowering of blood pressure (BP) after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In contrast the unhydrolyzed PPI had no antihypertensive effect in SHR. Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) and flaxseed protein hydrolysate (FPH) were also effective BP-lowering agents when administered orally to SHR. Fractionation of the HPH and FPH into peptides of smaller sizes resulted in significant (p<0.05) losses in BP reducing effects. The PPH also lowered BP when fed as a component of the diet to Han:SPRD-cy rat (a model of chronic kidney disease) over an 8-week period. Plasma level of angiotensin II (vasopressor) was reduced in rats fed PPH, which correlated with observed BP reduction.
Peptides Derived from Soybean Flour Bear Anti-cancer Activity against Kasumi-3 Blood Cancer Cells. S. Rayaprolu, N. Hettiarachchy, A. Kannan, P. Chen, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Soy flour obtained from high oleic acid soybeans is an inexpensive source of high quality protein. The purpose of this research was to add value to soybean flour by utilizing proteins from the flour and generating bioactive peptides. Specific tasks included the extraction of proteins from the flour, hydrolyzing proteins to peptides, making peptides resistant to simulated gastro-intestinal (GI) environment, and fractionation to obtain GI-resistant fractions. The fractions (<5, 5-10 and 10-50kDa) were tested for anti-cancer activity by the MTS cytotoxicity assay on human cancer cell lines. Our research demonstrated in vitro anticancer activity of peptide fractions against human breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116, Caco-2), liver (HepG-2), prostate (PC-3) and lung (NCL- H1299) cancer cells. Further screening included Kasumi-3 (acute myeloblastic leukemia) human blood cancer cell line. The 10-50kDa peptide fractions from the high oleic acid soybean line N98-4445A inhibited 63% of the Ksumi-3 blood cancer cells while the 5-10kDa fractions from high oleic acid soybean line S03-543CR caused approximately 57% inhibition on the Kasumi-3 blood cancer cells. The research demonstrated the use of an economic co-product from the soybean oil industry to derive nutraceuticals in the form of bioactive peptides that may play a role in cancer prevention and therapy.
Anti-inflammatory Peptide, Pyroglutamyl-leucine - Distribution in Fermented Foods. K. Sato, T. Kiyono, E.Y. Park, Y. Nakamura, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto, Japan
Pyroglutamyl-leucine (pEL) was isolated from wheat gluten hydrolysate and has been demonstrated to suppress inflammation in vitro and in vivo systems. Pyroglutamyl residue can be formed from amino terminal glutaminyl residue in water. Then the pEL could be derived from QL during processing. Our previous studies have demonstrated wide distribution of pyroglutamyl peptides in protein hydrolysate. Production of peptide also occurs in fermentation process of food. However. There is limited information on pyroglutamyl peptides in fermented food. In the present study, we demonstrate occurrence of anti-inflamatory peptide pEL in various fermented foods; fermented soy and milk, and alcoholic beverages. Especially in Japanese rice wine, it accounts for approximately 25% of total amino-terminal blocked peptide fraction. The alcohol-free fraction of Japanese rice wine moderate DSS-induced colitis on rat colon. These facts suggest anti-inflamatory functional food could be prepared by using fermentation technology involved in Japanese rice wine production.
Growth Performance and Health Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed with Cottonseed Proteins and Peptides. Aike Li, Xiaolin Zhang, Liangwei Qiu, Tingting Yun, Fei Han, Jing Xu, Yingyao Wang, Hui Lu, Academy of the State Administration of Grain, Beijing,P. R. of China
Cottonseed proteins and peptides (CSPP) which were made mainly from cottonseed meal (CSM) through fermentation and/or enzymatic hydrolysis were studied for bioactive compositions and animal feeding effect . The crude protein content in CSPP was about 59% , roughly 10% true protein net increase after treatments. The small peptides (<600Da) content increased from original 3.82% to 18.72%. The relative distribution of small peptides released from CSPP in various parts of chicken digestive tract were higher than those from several protein feedstuffs. Free gossypol in CSPP was degraded with detoxification ratio of 78.06% . For feeding experiment, 180 broilers, 21-day-old, were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 5 birds each, and fed 6 diets containing equal digestible nutrients with a different protein feedstuff for 21 days. The two control treatments contained 34% SBM and 34% CSM, respectively. The other treatments had CSPP ranged from 17% to 34%. CSPP significantly improved the average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05). The thymus index,spleen index and Fabricius index were significantly improved (P < 0.05) also. The intestinal flora diversity, blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant function of the trial broilers fed diets containing CSPP were also improved.
Antibiotic Function of Saccharicterpenin Extracted from Camellia oleifera Seeds in Broiler Chickens. Aike Li, Yingyao Wang, Tingting Yun, YongXin Zhao, Fei Han, Yijiang Hou, Xia Luan, Academy of the State Administration of Grain,, Beijing, P. R. of China
Saccharicterpenin in the Camellia oleifera seeds is a feed-additive as an antibiotics alternative in China. Aqueous enzymatic extraction technology was adopted to extract the oil and saccharicterpenin from kernels simultaneously. The recovery rate of saccharicterpenin from the kernel is 80%, and the triterpenoid saponin content of saccharicterpenin is more than 30%.180 broilers,1-day-old, were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 6 birds each. The controlled group was fed with corn-soybean basal diet with antibiotic,20ppm virgianmycin. The other groups were fed with the same basal diet containing different doses of saccharicterpenin. The treatments were no significant different in the average daily gain (ADG), feed intakes, feed conversion rate (F/G)and immune organ indexes (P<0.05). However, the group containing 600 ppm Saccharicterpenin had the best ADG, F/G , dressing percentage and full bore rate. The immune and antioxidant functions, intestinal flora, blood biochemical parameters and the meat quality of broilers were investigated, and a challenged trial was also carried out in order to study the effect of Saccharicterpenin by aqueous enzymatic extraction to replace the antibiotics on broilers diet.
PCP 3.1 Protein Structure and Functionality in Food and Non-Food Applications
Chair(s): J. Wu, University of Alberta, Canada; and N. Shah, Solae LLC, USA
Bowman-Birk Inhibitor; Purification and Preclinical Efficacy in Neuromuscular Disease. C. Schasteen, J. Wu, B. Pierce, B. Tulk, P. Ghosh, M. Mekel, Solae LLC, Saint Louis, MO, USA
Soy has been consumed safely for many hundreds if not thousands of years by millions of humans. Several protease inhibitors, Bowman-Birk and Kunitz, most commonly referred to as trypsin inhibitors BBI and KTI, respectively, are the best known and the most studied biologically active proteins in soybean. KTI is the acknowledged antinutrient and is inactivated using heat, e.g., the toasting of soybean flakes. BBI is not an antinutritive, is heat stable and has been reported in the literature to possess diverse bioactivities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, positive effects in neuromuscular disease, ulcerative colitis, radiation-induced transformation in vitro and a decrease in the photoaging of skin. We have purified soybean BBI to homogeneity using a variety of separation techniques. The molecular targets for the variety of bioactivities noted above for BBI are not completely understood, however, proteases are involved in a multitude of physiological cascades and the potential of BBI to control these pivotal proteases is logical. Examples of the different animal models of neuromuscular disease will be presented where BBIC or BBI have been evaluated
Protein-lipid Interactions and Their Effect on the Quality of Soy Protein Isolates. Naina Shah, Anthony Irwin, Phil Kerr, Solae, USA
Proteins produced using High Oleic soybeans were observed to have functional advantages like increase whiteness index and low viscosity. However the molecular basis of these functional benefits was not well understood. Here we present a systematic study of protein lipid interactions and their effect on the functional properties of the proteins. Isolates were generated and the composition of the lipids in the isolates were varied either by fatty acid addition or by mixing of 2 flakes with inherently different fatty acid compositions. The resultant isolates were evaluated for viscosity and whiteness, both properties were related to the amount of un-saturated fatty acids in the flake, either inherent or added.
Industrial Applications of Functionalized Soy Storage Proteins. Richard E. Gagnon, Peter Baele, Keith B. Cockerline, DuPont Soy Polymers, St. Louis, MO, USA
Soy storage proteins may be functionalized for industrial use through physical and chemical processes. In this presentation, the authors will discuss industrial applications of functionalized soy proteins and draw clear distinctions between these materials and soy proteins isolated as food. The presentation will emphasize the relationship between functionalized soy protein characteristics and both downstream processing and the desired attributes of finished consumer goods.
Structure-function Study of Major Crucifer Oilseed Storage Protein: Emulsifying Properties and Hydrophobicity of Homomeric Cruciferin. T.S. Withana-Gamage1,2, D.D. Hegedus1,2, X. Qui2, J.P.D. Wanasundara1,2, 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon SK S7N 0X2, Canada, 2Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9, Canada
Cruciferin is the predominant 11S globulin of crucifers such as canola and mustard and has tremendous potential as a food or non-food protein. This hexameric protein is composed of subunits expressed by few different genes. The heterogeneity of subunit composition is reflected in the structural and physico-chemical properties of a protein. Using Arabidopsis mutant lines (homomeric Cru A, Cru B, or Cru C), emulsifying properties and hydrophobicity were studied and compared with wild type counterpart. The surface hydrophobicity of all protein isoforms was related to the emulsifying properties which were evaluated using visual, static light scattering, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. For each of these properties, Cru C exhibited clear separation from other two types of cruciferin isoforms. Three-dimensional structures of cruciferin homotrimers obtained through comparative modelling showed significant differences in the structural properties of CruC proteins because of the extended loop segments and their residue composition. This relationship of experimental data with modelling predictions, show the strength of in-silico assessment of structure related physicochemical properties to predict functional properties of cruciferins.
Corn Protein Blends, Part 2 – Thermal Properties and Morphology. C.J.R. Verbeek1, K.A. Rosentrater2, 1University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
As a result of the growing biofuel industry, by-products such as high protein corn gluten meal (CGM) and fibre rich dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) has also grown. CGM has been shown to be suitable as a biopolymer, while DDGS’s high fibre content made it less attractive despite it being considerably cheaper. In this study extrusion behavior of CGM and DDGS blends were evaluated, using urea as a denaturant. DDGS:CGM in ratios 0,33,50,66 and 100% were examined using a single screw extruder relying entirely on dissipative heating. Replacing CGM with DDGS had no adverse effect on power requirements for extrusion, although blends containing DDGS were less uniformly consolidated and also resulted in more dissipative heating. Blends showed multiple glass transitions, characteristic of mechanically compatible blends. Transmission electron microscopy revealed phase separation on a micro-scale, although distinct CGM or DDGS phases could not be identified. On a macro-scale, optical microscopy suggested that CGM rich blends were better consolidated, supported by observations of a more continuous extrudate forming during extrusion. Future work should aim to also characterize the mechanical properties of these blends to assess their suitability as either bioplastic feedstock or pelletized livestock feed.
Plastic from Feather Quills. Jianping Wu, Aman Ullah, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Feather is a waste product of the poultry industry. The purpose of the study is to develop plastic from feathers. The effect of four different plasticizers on the thermoplastic properties was then investigated. Conformational changes and plasticizer-protein interactions in the extruded resins were assessed by FTIR, while viscoelastic behaviour of the quill keratin plasticized with different plasticizers was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). DSC was used to determine the effect of different plasticizers on protein denaturation. Thermal degradation patterns of the extrudates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of plasticizers on the mechanical properties of resins was also assessed by tensile strength measurements. Results indicated that ethylene glycol was able to interact more effectively with quill keratin at the molecular level, exhibiting only one sharp glass transition, better mechanical properties, and higher transparency compared to other plasticized resins. The two phases found in glycerol plasticized material were attributed to glycerol-rich and protein-rich zones. Propylene glycol and diethyl tartrate exhibited lower H-bonding interactions and showed wide transition regions in DMA profiles during heating, suggesting weak and heterogeneous interactions between quill keratin and these plasticizers.